(654c) Influence Of Phosphorous On The Heterogeneous Catalytic Cracking Of Lipids For Green Diesel Production
- Conference: AIChE Annual Meeting
- Year: 2007
- Proceeding: 2007 Annual Meeting
- Group: Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Division
- Time: Friday, November 9, 2007 - 9:20am-9:45am
Biodiesel is one of the most widely used biofuels in the world, due in part to its simplicity of production, compatibility with existing engines, and reduction of green house gas emissions. However, technical difficulties with biodiesel include: (1) the need of highly refined oil for ASTM compliance, (2) incompatibility with the petroleum-diesel pipeline distribution system, and (3) a relatively small inventory of expensive feedstocks. Issues (1) and (2) could be overcome by the production of biofuels using chemical processes associated with petroleum refining. Catalytic lipid cracking could result in green diesel, a fuel chemically similar to conventional diesel but derived from a clean renewable feedstock. A homogeneous reaction of a model lipid with triflic acid (100 times more acidic than sulfuric acid) resulted in products indicative of cracking. This paper will expand on these results with the cracking of model lipids over a solid acid catalyst zeolite (ZSM-5). Since lipid feedstocks contain small amounts of phospholipids knowledge of the interactions between phospholipids and zeolites is crucial to a system-wide understanding of the lipid cracking process. Phosphorus-containing compounds were used to poison ZSM-5 in order to simulate the cracking of phospholipids. Model lipid compounds were then cracked over the poisoned zeolite, with differences in product distribution and kinetics based on phosphorus loading recorded. Additionally, the paper will cover the basic mechanism of phosphorus poisoning on acid catalysts as well as a description and economics of potential feedstock sources (e.g., microorganisms) capable of supplying the U.S. with billions of gallons of green diesel.