All short courses will take place on March 29, 2020.
You can register for any of these short courses by selecting the course title during the 2020 AIChE Spring Meeting and 16th GCPS online registration process or call customer service at 1.800.242.4363 to add the courses to your registration.
Note: Cancellations after March 8, 2020 will not receive any refunds*
- S1: How to Perform Cyber Process Hazard Analysis
- S2: Risk Interpretation and Mitigation Development – What to do following a Quantitative Risk Based Study?
- S3: Fundamentals of Water Hammer
- S4: Understanding and Improving Human Reliability through Written Procedures and Other Job Aids
- S5: Dust Explosion Dynamics
- S6: Flammable Liquids, Vapors and Gases Training
- S7: Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA)
- S8: PHA/HAZOP of Procedures (Hazard evaluation of non-routine operating modes)
- S9: Introduction to Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Process CCPS 2nd Edition
- S10: Bow Ties in Risk Management - Updated Methodology
- S11: Piping and Instrument Diagram Development
- S12: Introduction to TRIZ Inventive Probelm Solving
All short courses are selected following a short course proposal process. Be prepared to submit a proposal for next year, view the requirements here.
Book: No Book
Instructors: Paul Baybutt, CEO and Founder, Primatech Inc.
Computer control systems for process plants are at risk of cyber attacks by adversaries who wish to disable or manipulate them to cause harm, for example, by opening or closing valves, starting or stopping equipment, and overriding alarm and trip settings.
Computer control systems increasingly are being exposed to penetration by connecting them to business and enterprise networks driven by the need to communicate process information and the opportunity to intervene remotely in manufacturing processes.
Companies should conduct cyber process hazard analysis (PHA) studies to identify threats to their computer control systems, determine if vulnerabilities are present, and evaluate existing countermeasures to determine if they need to be strengthened or new ones implemented.
This training course teaches attendees how to perform cyber PHA studies for processes that use computer control.
Be able to perform Cyber PHA studies.
What You Will Learn
- Meaning of cyber security and its importance.
- Basics of computer networks and control systems
- Sources and types of attack
- Common vulnerabilities
- Attack techniques
- Countermeasures available
- Use of Cyber PHA methods
What You Will Receive
- A course manual
- Guidelines for Cyber PHA
- References to sources of further guidance
- Checklists for Cyber PHA
What You Will Experience
The course presenter uses a combination of lively presentations with exercises to reinforce learning. Questions are encouraged. Attendees participate in interactive instructor-led sessions and in workshops to practice course teachings. Feedback is provided by the instructor.
Why You Should Attend
∙ Many companies have computer control systems that are poorly protected.
∙ Attacks on process control systems have already occurred.
∙ The likelihood of cyber attacks on industrial control systems increases daily.
∙ Cyber PHA methods are available that can help you to secure your process control systems.
These reasons can be used to help convince your management of the value of the course and the need for you to attend.
Who Should Attend
Personnel who are responsible for securing computer control systems from cyber attacks by performing Cyber PHA studies..
Knowledge of computer control systems.
- Computer networks and control systems
- Sources and types of attack
- Vulnerabilities to attack
- Attack techniques
- Threat analysis
- Vulnerability analysis
- Cyber security countermeasures
- Cyber PHA
S2: Risk Interpretation and Mitigation Development – What to do following a Quantitative Risk Based Study?
Book: No Book
Instructors: Andrew Staszak, SciRisq
As industry continues to embrace and increase the application of risk based analyses (e.g. Risk-Based Siting Assessment and Quantitative Risk Assessment - QRA), a need has arisen to provide education and instruction on how to understand and interpret quantitative risk results, identify drivers, identify information needed to support risk mitigations, evaluate mitigation options, and how mitigations can be validated.
In many cases where QRAs are being conducted, but the results are still being treated or interpreted in a traditional consequence-based manner. In other cases, companies and operations are neglecting the benefits of QRAs simply because they “don’t know what to do” with the results. QRAs can be conducted at various stages of a facilities life cycle and options for what risk to assess and how to mitigate can vary significantly, which can lead to more confusion.
As a member of the process safety community SciRisq has had the benefit of interacting with various owner, operating, and invested party companies which all utilize a variety of risk and analyses approaches. SciRisq has seen and heard the questions being asked related to the outcome of QRAs and the industries desire for an opportunity to increase understanding to improve implementation of results.
The purpose of this short course would provide attendees with enough understanding and information to be able to effectively:
- Understand the building blocks that go into developing risk results (such as F-N societal risk curves, individual risk per annum, location specific risk, design accident loads, etc.).
- Preplan the focus of the a QRA to achieve the end goal(s) of the study or application of the results.
- Review and interpret quantitative risk results commonly seen in industry.
- Identify and understand risk drivers and their effect on risk metrics.
- Identify what courses of action/mitigation(s) could be affective against identified risk drivers.
- How to qualify, quantify, and compare mitigation options.
- How to proof implemented mitigations against selected risk metrics.
- Understand additional uses of QRA results, e.g. performance based optimization, gas and fire detection and protection systems, selection of facility expansion and layout changes, etc.
A strong understanding of the above topics will provide attendees with the ability to fully leverage the results of their quantitative risk studies and support continued efforts toward the goal of inherently safe design and operation.
- Introduction to the course.
- Short Review of, What is a QRA?
- Planning for a QRA
- Common Risk Results
- The Building Block of Risk Results
- Interpretation of Risk Results
- Identification of Risk Drivers
- Understanding Riks Drivers and their Effects on Metrics
- Mitigation Options, Selection, and Relative Effectiveness
Book : No Book
Instructor: Basar Ozar, Jensen Hughes
Water Hammer is a pressure surge or wave caused by a momentum change in a fluid. The pressure change can damage pipes, supports and the piping network, impacting business continuity and worker safety. This course will review the causes and impacts of waterhammer and important mitigating strategies to protect against the risk of waterhammer.
- Review system procedures and identify conditions that could create waterhammer situations given component failures.
- Identify actions that could minimize the occurrence and the magnitude of waterhammer events.
- Identify mechanisms in waterhammer events.
- Understand what to look for in waterhammer event walkdowns.
- Describe recent waterhammer events and how they could be prevented.
1. Water Hammer Basics
a. What is water hammer?
b. Water hammer (Joukowski) equation
c. Sonic velocity (single phase, two-phase, effect of pipe wall)
d. Types of pressure waves
e. Transmission coefficients
2. How does damage occur?
a. What causes damage?
b. Major types of water hammer
c. Typical characteristics of a water hammer wave
d. Determining water hammer loads on a single pipe
e. Determining water hammer loads in a system
3. How is water hammer generated?
a. What is thermal layer?
b. Water Hammer Mechanisms (Single phase, vapor-liquid, no condensable gas/liquid)
c. Root causes
4. Mitigation Strategies
a. Mechanical design improvements
b. Proper equipment selection
c. Devices (Vacuum breakers, Orifices, Standpipes)
d. Procedural improvements (Flow rates, venting, slow valve opening, slow pump start up)
5. Industrial Case Studies
6. Physical demonstrations
a. Water hammer tube: Glass tube filled with water is used to explain the fundamentals of water hammer. https://vimeo.com/353899545/b961a88b02
b. Periodic water hammer: This demo consists of a copper tube inserted into a plastic bucket. Bucket is filled with cold water and steam is supplied into the copper tube to demonstrate the periodic water hammer event for horizontal configurations. https://www.linkedin.com/posts/basar-ozar-79335311_the-ticking-bucket-steam-is-supplied-from-activity-6491312902845329409-iPnw
c. Coke bottle: This demo consists of a coke bottle with small amount of hot water which is heated up on a hot plate. The demo is used for demonstrating a water hammer event when the top of the coke bottle is inserted into cold water.
d. Dynamic venting: Approximately 6 feet long 4 inch dimeter PVC piping is used to demonstrate venting of air pockets from horizontal pipes.
Instructors: Sunil Lakhiani, Ph.D., P.E., CSP; Chason J. Coelho, Ph.D., CSP, CFI; and Trey Morrison, Ph.D., P.E., CPSP, CFEI, Exponent
Book: Guidelines for Writing Effective Operating and Maintenance Procedures
According to the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), developing and implementing effective written procedures provides a fundamental building block for an effective Process Safety Management system. Furthermore, procedures and the safe work practices they describe constitute two of the nine elements associated with the Managing Risk pillar of the CCPS guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety. It is clear that procedures and other job aids are essential aspects of managing high-hazard systems.
Deviations of content, format and layout of information from Human Factors principles can lead to costly human errors and, in turn, can result in catastrophic incidents. This short course not only presents these Human Factors principles but also provides unique perspectives on them. Bases for the principles are explained using understandable examples from scientific literatures in cognitive neuroscience and psychology. This information affords attendees insights not only into how to create effective new procedures and job aids, but also how to identify potential human performance gaps that can arise from current work activities. It is important that organizations in the process industries understand these principles of human performance in assessing future and current practices for developing, reviewing, evaluating, and verifying procedures and other job aids. This assessment is the first step in creating a process to help ensure that the procedures and job aids are consistent with the Human Factors principles geared toward enhancing the safety, productivity, reliability, and general effectiveness of the work systems. Clear, accurate and consistent procedures and job aids not only help organizations train and evaluate the performance of the stakeholders, but also help organizations improve human reliability through evaluation of human error potential.
This course also introduces Human Factors principles related to human error taxonomies as applicable to the development and evaluation of procedures and job aids. Course instructors will discuss the guidelines for designing procedures not only based on the multiple scientific literatures but also industry best practices. In addition, the instructors will use example procedures to engage the attendees in class workshop activities to apply the principles and guidelines. Lastly, this course will introduce to the attendees a methodology for human reliability assessment: The Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). This technique utilizes procedures for a step-by-step team approach to assess the human error probabilities that could be incorporated into valuable risk assessment methods, such as Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA). Attendees will therefore come away from the class with several valuable tools that they can readily implement to help improve human performance and prevent incidents in their organizations.
- Introduction to human performance and error
- Core Human Factors principles
- Pillars of Risk Based Process Safety
- Human Factors Guidelines for Procedures Development and Evaluation
- Format and layout
- Procedural steps wording
- Procedural steps numbering system
- Associated job aids
- Warnings and safety information
- Tables and figures
- Applicable science and industry principles
- Discussion of practices at various organizations
- Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)
- Introduction to HRA
- Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique
- Benefits and costs
- Realistic application examples
CCPS’ Guidelines for Writing Effective Operating and Maintenance Procedures will be provided to the attendees along with additional notes and handouts.
Instructors: Russell A. Ogle, Michael Stern, and Sean O’Hern
Book: Dust Explosion Dynamics, Butterworth-Heinemann (2016)
The purpose of this short course is to reveal the combustion science behind combustible dust hazards. Numerous examples will be presented from case studies to illustrate the application of dust explosion dynamics to dust hazard analysis.
- Demonstrate how the fundamental principles of combustion science can be applied to understand the four primary combustible dust hazards: smoldering, flash fires, dust deflagrations, and flame acceleration effects
- Explore fundamental dust combustion concepts as a scientific foundation for dust hazard analysis
- Present detailed examples to give insight into the hazards of combustible dust as well as an introduction to the relevant scientific literature
- Introduction to combustible dust hazards
- The key physical properties of combustible dust
- Thermodynamics of dust combustion
- Transport phenomena for dust combustion
- Smoldering phenomena
- Dust particle combustion models
- Unconfined dust flame propagation
- Confined unsteady dust flame propagation (deflagrations)
- Dust flame acceleration effects (shock waves, detonations, and pressure piling)
- Applications of dust explosion dynamics to dust hazard analysis
Instructor: Paul Osterberg, DEKRA
Book: No Book
This course is designed as a one (1) day learning experience to provide the knowledge and skills to identify, mitigate, and protect against the hazards associated with flammable liquids, vapors, or gases. Training will encompass a detailed overview of the fundamentals of flammability, test methods and interpretation, and relevant compliance standards, codes and regulations.
What You will Learn
- How to determine if a fire or explosion hazard exists within your facility.
- The minimum requirements to be in compliance with codes, standards, regulations and Recognized and Generally Accepted Good Engineering Practices (RAGAGEP)
- How to determine the validity of any existing laboratory data you might have and what test data is needed for design purposes.
- How to identify gaps in your facility's fire and explosion prevention and protection requirements;
- How to design and implement various explosion protection and prevention methods
- About different combustion events and explosions, their characteristics and the hazards they represent.
- Methods for controlling flammable atmospheres to prevent or reduce fire and explosion hazards.
- Essentials for storage of large & small (portable) quantities of flammable materials
- How to protect against the effects of explosions when control measures may not be fully effective.
Who Should Attend
- Process Safety Personnel
- Those responsible for processes handling flammable liquids/vapors/gases
- Process Engineers
- Safety and Health Personnel
- Designers of facilities that handle flammable liquids/vapors/gases
Codes, Standards and Regulations Reviewed
- OSHA 1910.106 Flammable Liquids
- NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Code
- NFPA 67 Guide on Explosion Protection for Gaseous Mixtures in Pipe Systems (Including new requirements of the 2019 edition!)
- NFPA 68 Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting
- NFPA 69 Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems (Including new requirements of the 2019 edition!)
- International Building and Fire Codes (adopted by most states as a Legal Requirement)
- Fundamentals of flammability and flammability properties
- Test methods for determining flammability properties and interpretation
- Review Compliance to various Standards and Regulations
- Flammable Liquids (NFPA 30)
Book: No Book
Instructor: Arthur (Art) M. Dowell or William G. Bridges (Bill) , PII
Are proposed or existing combinations of safeguards enough to prevent an accident or mitigate the consequences? Do you perceive that doing a fully quantitative risk assessment (QRA) would be over-working the problem? Then Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is the new tool you need to learn. LOPA combines both qualitative and quantitative elements of hazard evaluation and risk assessment to analyze and judge the adequacy of existing or proposed safeguards against process deviations and accident scenarios. A key to the success of LOPA is its rules for judging if protection layers are truly independent. Because of these rules, LOPA helps the analysts make consistent judgments of if the risk of scenarios are “as low as reasonably practical (ALARP)”. This “How To” course is taught by one of the principal authors of the AIChE/CCPS book, Layer of Protection Analysis (2001). The course will also bring you up-to-date on changes from the newly released Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers, CCPS/AIChE (Mr. Bridges, the instructor, was the primary author of this textbook). Workshops are used as the primary mode of teaching each aspect of LOPA. You will perform several complete LOPA before leaving class.
What You Will Learn:
- When and how to use LOPA and How to systematically create risk scenarios
- How to establish risk acceptance (risk tolerance) criteria for use within your company (this is also called development of ALARP criteria)
- How to calculate “as-is” risk for a cause-consequence pair:
- Estimate the frequency of the initiating event and estimate consequence
- What is meant by “independence” and “uniqueness” with respect to IPLs
- How to use LOPA to determine the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) necessary for an instrument IPL (to comply with the requirements of IEC 61508/61511)
- How other companies worldwide use LOPA to:
- Decide which PHA/HAZOP recommendations to reject and which to accept
- Focus limited resources within mechanical integrity departments and operations on what is critical to manage risk to ALARP
- Avoid wasting resources on quantifying risk using QRA methods
- Perform specialized risk modeling for facility siting questions
- Comprehensive course notebook containing: Examples of risk acceptance and judgment protocols & Industry examples and solutions to all LOPA workshops
- Certificate of Completion and 0.7 CEUs & 0.7 COCs
Typical Course Candidates
This course is designed for experienced PHA/HAZOP leaders. Other individuals with a strong technical background (such as engineers and scientists) may attend:
- Managers of Operations, Safety; Project Managers; Engineers – Process, Safety, and Mechanical; PSM Coordinators and Managers
Introduction to LOPA
- Learning objectives and goals of using the LOPA technique
- What is LOPA? How is LOPA applied? Definitions? When is LOPA used?
Developing LOPA Scenarios
- Selecting candidate scenarios from brainstorming hazard evaluations
- Scenarios from design questions and from incidents
Estimating the Consequence of the Scenario
- Using a look-up table of consequence; Developing a consequence look-up table for your company; Alternative methods for estimating consequences
- Workshop 1: Estimating the consequence of a scenario (part of a continuing example)
Estimating the Likelihood of the Selected Initiating Event
- Using a look-up table of initiating event categories and frequencies
- How to develop an initiating event look-up table for your company
- Addressing enabling conditions and time-dependent initiating events
- Workshop 1: Estimating the frequency of an initiating event of a scenario (part of a continuing example)
Estimating the Probability of Failure of Independent Protection Layers
- Definitions, rules, and exceptions for giving credit for an independent protection layer (IPL); Using a look-up table of IPL categories and probability of failure on demand (PFOD); How to develop an IPL look-up table
- Workshop 1: Deciding which safeguards are valid IPLs and estimating the PFOD of the valid IPLs (part of a continuing example)
Calculating the Risk
- Using a standardized LOPA worksheet; Rules for calculating risk for an individual scenario (LOPA); Rules for summing risk of related scenarios
- Workshop 1: Calculating the risk of a LOPA scenario (part of a continuing example)
Judging the Risk
- Examples of risk tolerance criteria from the industry
- Development and implementation of a company risk tolerance criteria
- Workshop 1: Judging the risk of a LOPA scenario (cont. example)
Special Applications of LOPA
- Using LOPA for facility siting questions; Selecting the SIL for an interlock
S8: PHA/HAZOP of Procedures (Hazard evaluation of non-routine operating modes) – uncover the scenarios that lead to 70% of the major process safety accidents
Book: No Book
Instructors: William G. Bridges (Bill) or Revonda Tew , PII
Do the existing PHA/HAZOPs of your units cover all modes of operation? Has your procedures for startup, shutdown, and online maintenance been analyzed to find the accident scenarios that lurk only there? Industry data shows that 45% of major accidents occur during startup mode of operation and another 30% during shutdown and online maintenance modes of operation. But, most PHA/HAZOPs only focus on normal (typically continuous) modes of operation. This “How To” course is taught by the author of Chapter 9 on this topic in Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, 3rd Edition (2008). Workshops are used as the primary mode of teaching each aspect of the short course. You will perform several PHAs of procedures before leaving class. US OSHA endorses this approach and requires such analysis.
- When and how to use either What-If or HAZOP for analysis of procedures
- Pit-falls to avoid in analysis of procedures, especially how to optimize the time invested
- Options for documenting analysis of procedures
- Overview of human factors, including dependent human errors
- Comprehensive course notebook containing: Examples of risk review methods for procedure analysis and for documentation of same
- Certificate of Completion and 0.7 CEUs & 0.7 COCs
- Managers of Operations, Safety
- Project Managers
- Engineers – Process, Safety, and Mechanical; PSM Coordinators and Managers
- Overview of risk review methods - Methods and their usefulness over the life cycle of a process - Making risk judgments - Human factors concepts and how to address human factors during hazard evaluations
- HAZOP technique and Best practice rules for HAZOP
- Review of Rules for IPLs
- HAZOP techniques (2 guidewords and 7 guidewords) for analyzing procedures and batch processes - Workshop: Example HAZOP of a procedure (instructor-led) - Workshop: HAZOP review by participants in breakout groups
- What-if/checklist technique as applied to analysis of procedures - Workshop: Example What-if (instructor-led)
- Workshop: What-If review by participants in breakout groups
- Checklist analysis as supplements to brainstorming methods for procedure analysis
- Human Factors Checklists
- Recap of best practices
Instructors: Eloise Roche & Angela Summers, Sis-tech
Book: Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes, 2nd Edition
- Safe Automation Lifecycle Process
- Designing Automation for Reliable Control (e.g., inherently safer practices)
- Control System Hardware Selection (e.g., instrumentation, logic solvers, auxiliaries)
- Alarm and Instrument Justification and Alarm Management
- Designing Automation for Functional Safety
- Designing Automation for Cyber Security
- Safe Automation Management Systems
Instructor: Robin Pitblado, DNVGL
Book: CCPS Concept Book Bow Ties in Risk Management
Bow ties are now being widely used in both the upstream and downstream industries. While this is delivering value in helping staff better understand barriers, there has been an issue of consistency. Until recently there was no standard approach and thus many bow ties for similar activities can appear quite different – some bow ties may show 10+ barriers on a pathway, others for a similar threat may show only a few. This is especially true for the treatment of human factors issues. This limits the opportunity to share good practice bow ties between companies.
CCPS and the Energy Institute in the UK collaborated on a Bow Tie methodology concept book, published in 2018. The aim was to collect good practices from member companies and to integrate human factors better into bow tie diagrams. The book changed some terminology to make the diagrams clearer to the general reader (e.g. barrier decay mechanisms rather than escalation factors) and established clear rules for what constitutes a full barrier – similar to the rule set for Independent Protection Layers. The approach makes use of a lower level (barrier decay mechanism) to show the safeguards supporting the main pathway barriers, but also allows for an additional level below that to cover safeguards such as regulations and safety culture that often are omitted from bow tie diagrams. Software tools for bow ties can hide or display these extra levels depending on the audience needs. Human errors make for poor threats and instead CCPS/EI recommend that these are treated as decay mechanism threats which can undermine the effectiveness of main pathway barriers.
The course will present:
- The benefits of the bow tie approach highlighting some current limitations
- Suggested improvements to the structure and terminology of bow ties
- Rule sets to help teams construct good practice bow ties and a checklist for bow tie quality post development
- How best to treat human error in bow ties
- The use of multi-level bow ties
- Bow tie use in risk management
The course will use class examples extensively to demonstrate the ideas.
Book: No Book
Instructor: Avinash Karre
The purpose of this short course is to understand different steps involved in the development of Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs). Various guidelines for setting up a P&ID will be discussed for all different areas of chemical engineering such as pumps, fired heaters, heat exchangers, columns, compressors, vessels, other miscellaneous equipment's, instrumentations details, control logic, piping (insulation, size, material etc.), valve, notes, equipment design details, safety valves, flare system, tanks, and truck/rail cars etc.
1. Learn to develop P&ID in stepwise approach
2. Explore fundamentals of P&IDs
3. Learn to read and understand a P&ID (commonly used drawing in process industry)
Agenda for the Content of the Short Course
1. Basics of P&IDs
2. Development of equipment’s on P&IDs
3. Development of piping on P&ID
4. Development of Utilities
5. Isolation, drain, vent etc. development on P&ID
6. Control, indication, and process instruments
7. Instrumentation, controls, alarms, and safety instruments
8. Additional information on P&ID
9. Drafting, backchecking, and revisions
Who should attend:
Process engineers, plant operators, plant managers, chemical engineers, safety professionals, mechanical engineers, and control system engineers who seek a better understanding of P&ID world.
Book: No Book
Instructor: Jack Hipple
This workshop will review the fundamental of the TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) process, used in resolving engineering design contradictions, failure prediction, and predicting process and product evolution. In addition to industrial examples, the course will review the TRIZ algorithm, the 40 inventive principles, the TRIZ contradiction table, and the TRIZ lines of evolution.
Background of the Short Course Instructor:
Jack Hipple is a 35 year veteran of the chemical industry and has been teaching TRIZ Inventive Problem Solving for AIChE and ASME since 2003. He is the author of "The Ideal Result: What It Is and How to Achieve It" (Springer) and "Chemical Engineering for Non-Chemical Engineers" (Wiley). His industrial and consulting experience includes Dow Chemical, S.C. Johnson, Owens Corning, Alcoa, Eastman Chemical, Monsanto, Exxon-Mobil, and others. He has served as Chair of AIChE's Management Division as well as on the national BOD of AIChE.