(36c) Biomass, Solar and Wind-Based Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Supply Chain Optimization Considering Enhanced Oil Recovery: A Colombian Case Study
AIChE Annual Meeting
Sunday, November 13, 2022 - 4:00pm to 4:15pm
Several research initiatives worldwide are focusing on the incorporation of green and blue hydrogen as a non-conventional energy source to diversify the global energy matrix and to reduce net carbon emissions. According to , despite the interesting environmental benefits that come with the use of hydrogen as an energy vector, its implementations must achieve economies of scale to reduce costs. This is accomplished with an adequate study of the hydrogen supply chain that promotes its use and applications in different sectors.
Similarly, it has been identified that the hydrogen implementation in the energy matrix entails great challenges such as: analysis of production technologies focused on reducing costs  , studies on infrastructure and logistics to evaluate ways to distribution and storage , determination of management and safety plans , studies on the lack of regulations that encourage their demand , diagnosis on the environmental implications in the use of technologies for H2 production , among other challenges.
In Colombia there are different initiatives with the aim of diversifying the energy matrix and reducing net carbon emissions. To achieve this objective, there has been investigations focused on: a roadmap for hydrogen , the location of areas that have the best characteristics to develop wind and solar photovoltaic farms from geographic information systems , and the potential of biomass conversion to biogas in Colombia . In this regard, for countries like Colombia it is necessary to evaluate the use of different resources to produce bioenergy that diversifies the energy matrix.
To reduce to zero the net carbon emissions, it is necessary to consider the incorporation of Carbon Capture, Use and Storage (CCUS). In this sense, CO2-EOR is frequently recognized as the main use of CO2 to leverage the deployment of CO2 capture chains even in the absence of tax benefits or carbon credits. Additionally, some industries emit high purity CO2 (e.g., natural gas processing, bioethanol production and hydrogen production), becoming an important source of low-cost CO2 for CCUS supply chains. The potential to develop CO2-EOR operations as a strategy to reduce CO2 emissions has been little studied in Colombia. In recent works, it was found a significant potential for CO2-EOR projects and established a methodology for matching CO2 sources and sinks through a dedicated pipeline network  . However, a mathematical programming approach has not yet been explored.
Some works have introduced CO2 capture into their hydrogen supply chain network design (HSCND) models, they found that combining carbon capture and storage (CCS) with hydrogen production plants is the alternative most cost-effective to maintain a low level of carbon emissions and avoid carbon tax penalties . Until now, the HSCND models have not included CO2 utilization for CO2-EOR.
In this work, we proposed a sustainable supply chain optimization model that maximizes the net present value (NPV) of the supply chain and considers: (1) hydrogen production from renewable resources (solar, wind and biomass), multimodal transportation and storage; (2) carbon dioxide capture, multimodal transportation, utilization for EOR and geological storage; and (3) carbon taxes and credits to evaluate the impact on the hydrogen sale price. The mathematical formulation for the supply chain is based on the work of Almansoori and Shah  and Moreno-Benito et al. , and the representation of the CO2-EOR operation is based on the work of Calderón and Pekney .
The optimization problem was formulated as Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and was solved in GAMS 33.2.0 using CPLEX v12.10. On one hand, the model inputs can be summarized as: (1) economic data (including carbon taxes and credits), (2) resources availability, (3) hydrogen demand and potential of CO2 storage and oil recovery for EOR operation, (4) production technologies specification (capex, opex, capacity and yields), (5) transportation modes (capex, opex, capacity), and (6) distances between nodes. On the other hand, the model outputs can be summarized as: (a) resources (biomass, solar and wind power) utilization rates, (b) production and capture rates, (c) flow rates between nodes, (d) CO2 storage and oil recovery rates for the CO2-EOR operations, (e) production plants (selection of number, location, technology, capacity), and (f) transport mode (selection of number, capacity, length, diameter).
The case study examines a nationwide multi-period long-term planning horizon in Colombia from 2020 to 2050. The territory is divided into different nodes that considers: (i) hydrogen demand for the power generation, industrial and mobility sectors ; (ii) biomass potential sources from agricultural residues and urban waste ; (iii) wind and solar energy potential ; and (iv) potential of CO2 storage and oil recovery for the CO2-EOR operation in oil fields . Nodes are connected to each other by different transportation modes (i.e., pipeline and truck). We consider electrolysis and biomass gasification with carbon capture and as the available technologies for hydrogen production.
Results and Implications
A sensitivity analysis was conducted by varying the sale price of hydrogen (between 1.0 and 5.0 USD/tonH2) to evaluate its effect on the NPV of the project. As a result of this analysis, information was obtained on the equilibrium price of the project (i.e., the sale price of hydrogen that leads to a value of zero for the NPV). Additionally, the effect of including or not including EOR within the proposed supply chain was analyzed. It was found that CO2-EOR is a strategy with an important potential for the use of CO2 in Colombia due to its economic benefits and its capacity to promote the energy transition towards renewable energies. As future work, it is proposed to analyze the impact of public policies on the NPV and study the carbon footprint on the sale price of hydrogen.
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