(634g) Costs and CO2 Sequestration Potential of Near-Term and Long-Term Implementation of Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) in the U.S.
AIChE Annual Meeting
Thursday, November 11, 2021 - 4:45pm to 5:00pm
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) can remove CO2 from the atmosphere. This work assesses the potential scale of CO2 removal and cost of implementing BECCS in the U.S. in the near term (now) and long term (2040) while considering supply chain emissions of CO2, costs of biomass harvesting and transportation, and economics of power generation and carbon sequestration. This study includes two power generation technologies, pulverized coal (PC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, and two biomass treatment scenarios (conventional and pelletized). Potential sites were determined by considering the proximity of saline aquifers, protected lands, and populated regions. Supply chain costs and emissions for the harvesting, pretreatment, and transportation of biomass feed were evaluated to determine accurate costs and associated CO2 penalties. Performance and economics of PC and IGCC power plants were simulated using the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) to determine parameters like net MWh of electricity produced, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), emissions intensity, capital costs, and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Costs are presented in 2018 USD. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine influential parameters in power plant performance. The LCOE ranges between $140 and $180 per MWh in the 2020 scenario, and between $130 and $180 per MWh in the 2040 scenario. The cost of BECCS ranges between $35 and $176 per tonne of CO2, depending on the extent of biomass utilization. Under a near-term scenario using up to 206 million tonnes per year of biomass, roughly 181 million tonnes of CO2 can be sequestered annually in the U.S. at CO2 avoidance costs (CAC) ranging between $62 - $137 per tonne CO2. Long-term scenarios have the potential to use 740 million tonnes of biomass and sequester 737 million tonnes of CO2 per year at avoidance costs ranging between $42 to $92 per tonne CO2, depending on power plant configuration and fuel type. The cost of removing CO2 from the atmosphere, beyond post-combustion treatment, ranges from $30 to $140 per tonne CO2. Lastly, the economics of co-firing coal with biomass was considered. For co-fired corn stover, the CAC ranges between $58 and $108 per tonne of CO2 depending on degree of co-firing and power plant size. For poplar-fueled co-fired NGCC power plants, the LCOE ranges between $117 and $208 per MWh depending on extent of co-firing, plant size, and cost of fuel. Results presented in this work indicate that BECCS has the potential to remove CO2 at costs competitive with other negative emissions technologies.