Increasing global aviation activity is projected to contribute to about 3.1 billion tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 . Bio-aviation fuel, a blend of biomass-derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene and conventional jet fuel, is considered the best decarbonisation measure to limit the emissions to half of the 2005 baseline [2, 3]. High costs and limited availability of feedstocks pose the main barriers for large-scale production of bio-aviation fuel [4, 5]. Biomass already contributes a large share in the renewable energy supply of developed countries but available feedstocks are inadequate. They will need more plantations but stricter measures to conserve biodiversity and environment could hamper feedstock accessibility [6, 7]. Biomass in many developing countries of the tropics is generally more diverse and high-yielding, which could potentially supplement the relatively low feedstock supply in developed countries . However, there are several barriers to the efficient use of biomass in many countries, such as lack of economic incentives, inhibitive government policies, concerns regarding deforestation and biodiversity loss issues . The lack of developed and optimised biomass value chains is also a major hurdle in its implementation . Process system engineering tools and techniques have been developed for the planning and design of bio-energy provision in order to support complex decision-making . There are several bio-aviation fuel supply chain models in the literature  but these studies focus on bio-aviation fuel provision specific for the country or region of study. A comparative study on the bio-aviation fuel potential and prospective study of bio-aviation fuel trade between two or more countries is currently a research gap. In this study, the Value Web Model [13, 14], a spatio-temporal multi-objective optimisation model, based on mixed integer linear programming, is developed for bio-aviation fuel value chains in the UK and the Philippines. The feedstocks considered are Miscanthus and wheat straw for the UK, and Jatropha, rice straw and rice husk for the Philippines. The production pathways included are Fischer-Tropsch and alcohol-to-jet to convert the lignocellulosic feedstocks in both countries, as well as hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids to process Jatropha oil in the Philippines. These models can determine the optimal planning, design and operation of the value chains based on a variety of objectives such as maximising profit, maximising fuel production, minimising greenhouse gas emissions and minimising water consumption. Scenarios are developed for promising bio-aviation fuel value chains that can efficiently and sustainably satisfy domestic demands in both countries and meet prospective international demands. In this presentation, key insights on the implementation of bio-aviation fuel value chains in a developed and developing country and their potential collaboration through trade between countries will be reported.
Keywords: bio-aviation fuel; developing countries; developed countries; feedstock; production pathways; bio-aviation fuel value chains; biomass trade; multi-objective optimisation; mixed-integer programming.
Corresponding author: Dr Sheila Samsatli. Email: email@example.com
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