Pilot-plant piping is subject to more-frequent modification than typical process plant piping, and must be able to accommodate a range of media, temperatures, and pressures during its lifetime. Use this guide to determine which piping, tubing, and fittings are optimal for your pilot plant application.
Become a seer of process safety incidents with carefully chosen process safety performance indicators (PSPIs). A PSPI program developed using the barrier-based or tier-based approach will serve as your crystal ball.
Engineers can become better informed about their work with an increased familiarity of basic financial indicators. Use these insights to help ensure that the projects you work on are those that are most likely to become financial successes.
Previously, simulations based on nonequilibrium, or rate-based, models were considered impractical due to their complexity. However, with ever-increasing computing power, these simulations are not only feasible, but in some circumstances they should...
Nanotechnology is an emerging field that could potentially make a major impact on human health. Nanomaterials promise to revolutionize medicine and are increasingly used in drug delivery or tissue engineering applications.
Many manufacturing processes are not run as efficiently as they could be. The Six Sigma methodology provides a foundation for continuous improvement and for solving quality, operational, and other problems.
Multivariable processes are controlled by a hierarchical structure of control layers. Field devices and regulatory controls manage individual variables, while advanced process control and production control systems coordinate multiple variables to optimize operation.
Many of us remember receiving our polio vaccine on a sugar cube. Indeed, that was the motivation behind A Spoonful of Sugar, a song from the classic Disney movie Mary Poppins. Walt Disney had instructed the Sherman brothers, Robert and Richard, to come up with a catchy song for the film. When Robert arrived at home, after working all day trying to come up with an idea, his wife told him that the children had gotten their polio vaccine that day. Thinking they had gotten a shot, he asked them if it hurt. His son answered that the medicine was put on a cube of sugar and he swallowed it. And so “a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down was born.
It is crucial to our nation’s prosperity and standard of living that the U.S. attain and maintain world-class levels of labor productivity (economic output per unit of labor) across the economy. In effect, labor productivity represents an upper...
Chemical compatibility charts can be used to determine the chemical reactivity of thousands of common hazardous chemicals, the compatibility of absorbents, and the suitability of materials of construction in chemical processes.
Promising nanotechnology-enabled sensors, monitoring devices and analytical instruments continue to advance toward commercialization for diverse industrial, environmental, medical and military applications— but hurdles remain.
Selecting a sensor for continuous monitoring involves many considerations. This article discusses the types of sensors available, their applicability and limitations, and how to choose an appropriate sensor to protect people and equipment.
Chemical engineers have been practicing process simulation since the advent of the profession in the early 20th century. It was called process design and inevitably involved simplifying assumptions, including that steady-state process conditions had...
Shrikant Dhodapkar, Karl V. Jacob, Madhusudhan Kodam
Many factors affect the flowrate of bulk solids. This article reviews the underlying physics of solids flow and explains how to calculate the discharge rate of solids from processing and handling equipment.
Perfusion technology offers many benefits over fed-batch processing, such as reducing the size of the bioreactor, which reduces capital costs and enables the use of single-use bioreactor technology. Despite these advantages, a shift to continuous perfusion will likely be gradual.
Fluidized beds offer excellent heat transfer, and have the unique ability to move a wide range of solid particles in a fluid-like fashion. This article explains the basics of fluidization theory and outlines how to design a typical fluidized bed.
Although pilot- and commercial-scale plants may appear similar, they must be designed with different objectives in mind. Find out how the design criteria for pilot and commercial plants differ, and why commercial specifications should not be applied to pilot plants.