Process Design & Development

Apply an Integrated Approach to Catalytic Process Design

February
2007
Reactions and Separations
Mitrajit Mukherjee, James Nehlsen, Richard V. Porcelli
To ensure a practical, efficient and economically viable process, first consider how a successful catalytic reaction system would work, then focus on making a catalyst with the desired characteristics.

Successfully Scale Up Solids Handling

April
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
K. Eric Bengtson, John W. Carson, Thomas G. Troxel
A sound theoretical model of the process to be scaled is the best approach; if one is not available, bench-scale testing, physical scale modeling or full-scale modeling is required. Here are guidelines as to which method is appropriate for various...

Selecting Elbows for Pneumatic Conveying Systems

September
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
Paul Wagner
The right elbow can keep your system operating at peak performance, reduce maintenance costs, and minimize material attrition and elbow wear. This article describes common elbows and outlines factors to consider when selecting one.

Applying the Paradigm Case Method for Flowmeter Selection

September
2006
Fluids and Solids Handling
Jesse Yoder
This effective approach to flowmeter selection involves a step-by-step method that begins by matching the application with the flowmeter(s). Then, a series of criteria are applied to narrow the selection.

Harnessing the Power of Virtual Reality

July
2012
On The Horizon
Li Guo, Zhouzhou Li, Jinghai Li, Xinhua Liu, Bona Lu, Fanxiao Meng, Zhaojie Xia, Mingkun Zhao
Advances in physical modeling and computational science will revolutionize the way engineers develop and design new technologies and processes.

Design and Control of Distillation Systems for Separating Azeotropes

March, 2010
Hands-on guidance for the design, control, and operation of azeotropic distillation systems Following this book's step-by-step guidance, readers learn to master tested and proven methods to overcome a major problem in chemical processing: the distillation and separation of azeotropes. Practical in...

Understanding Electromagnetic Flowmeters

May
2010
Instrumentation
Ronald W. DiGiacomo
Consisting of a flow tube, field-generating coils, electrodes, and a transmitter, a magmeter accurately measures the flowrate of conductive fluids over a wide range of conditions.

Selecting In-Process Particle-Size Analyzers

August
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Paul Barrett
To select the proper instrument for process monitoring, one must determine what attribute of the particle system impacts the process or product parameter of concern. Once the size region is identified, it can be tracked in-process, opening up the...

Designing a Process Flowsheet

May
2009
Back To Basics
Vornel Walker
Piping and instrumentation diagrams belong to a family of flowsheets that includes block flow diagrams and process flow diagrams. Technology advances have transformed these resources into intelligent documents, capable of storing layers of digital...

Process Synthesis: Poised for a Wider Role

April
2001
On The Horizon
W. R. Johns
Software for generating process designs has made relatively limited inroads so far. But, it now is set to follow simulation and become a tool routinely used by chemical engineers.

Create Business Value Through Process Modeling

September
2007
Management
Bernard McGarvey
As businesses strive to improve productivity, process modeling can be a powerful tool. This article explores the role of modeling in enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of process development and manufacturing.

Determine the Optimum Number of Process Trains

January
2010
Back To Basics
Gregory T. Benz
This article demonstrates that the repair and expense costs of process trains are not proportional to their capital costs and that, in most cases, building one plant with a single process train is the most economically efficient choice. <br>...

Basic Process Measurements

June, 2009
A unique resource for process measurement Basic Process Measurements provides a unique resource explaining the industrial measuring devices that gauge such key variables as temperature, pressure, density, level, and flow. With an emphasis on the most commonly installed technologies, this guide...

Keys to Bioreactor Selection

March
2002
Reactions and Separations
John A. Williams
A few basic types of bioreactor designs are used to produce a wide range of products, from antibiotics to foods to fuels. Here's how to pick the best options for your application.

Succeed at Catalyst Scale-Up

June
2006
Reactions and Separations
Richard Allen, William H. Beever, Jeff Braden, Donald R. Engelbert, J. Todd Osbourne, Uday T. Turaga, Ben Wagner
Follow these principles to reduce the time required for scale-up and commercialization to improve the resource effectiveness of the effort.

Minimize Scale-Up Risk

March
2010
SBE Special Section
J. Brad Cort, Thomas Pschorn, Bertil Stromberg
Proven commercial-scale equipment already exists for many operations involved in producing biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks.

Improving Heat Exchanger Designs

April
2007
Heat Transfer
Christopher A. Bennett, David C. King, R. Stanley Kistler, Thomas G. Lestina
This article defines and explains the factors that affect heat exchanger design margins. With the proper application of design margins, capital costs can be lowered and plant operations improved.

Integrate Compressor Performance Maps into Process Simulation

June
2011
Computational Methods
Grant Stephenson
Transforming the performance maps to a reduced coordinate system that is independent of suction conditions and rotational speeds allows these curves to be accurately incorporated into a process simulator.

How to Scale-Up Mixing Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids

May
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Christopher Henry , Robert J. Wilkens,  Lew E. Gates
This article will describe the relationships that must be understood to scale-up fluid mixing processes in non-Newtonian, power-law fluids. The principles described apply to both close-clearance impellers, such as anchors and helixes, and to open...

Find Mixing Success Through Failures - Part 2

December
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
David S. Dickey, Gary K. Patterson
Understanding when and why mixing fails in the laboratory is often the only way of avoiding a similar failure in a production-scale reactor. Here we examine mixing in stirred-tank reactors and provide guidance on scale-up.

Selecting Nickel Alloys for Corrosive Applications

May
2007
Materials
Paul Crook
Nickel and its alloys offer resistance to attack by a wide range of chemicals, including acids, alkalis and salts, making these materials suitable for may CPI applications.

Clarifying Centrifuge Operation and Selection

August
2004
Fluids and Solids Handling
Victor Norton ,  William Wilkie
Before selecting a centrifuge for your application, understand its principles of operation and investigate the key process variables.

Selecting Corrosion-Resistant Materials

December
2006
Materials
Francesco Picciotti, Marcello Picciotti
This article looks at some common corrosion-resistant alloys and gasket materials that are available for use in applications with high pressures and temperatures.

Reduce Your Compressed Air Costs

October
2011
Fluids and Solids Handling
Ron Marshall, Bill Scales
Annual operating expenses for compressed air systems can exceed the equipment’s purchase price. Follow these seven steps to implement efficiency measures that yield cost reductions.

Designing Four-Pass Trays

April
2010
Back To Basics
Daniel R. Summers
Use this procedure to design four-pass distillation column trays and to balance the vapor/liquid ratio on each tray panel.

Take Another Look at Steam Traps

June
2001
Fluids and Solids Handling
S. Raghavi  Chari
Think twice before installing a steam trap. In the case of superheated lines, steam traps may prove to be a waste of time, effort, and money

Ease Control Valve Selection

November
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
Kiran Nair, Liyakat Jaffer, Meredith Chapeaux, Sheetal Patel, Trevor Bishop
With so many types and options available, choosing the right control valve can seem daunting. Selection can be simplified by considering the process fluid, the service requirements, how the various valves function, and seeing how each valve will...

Steam Trap Troubles?

February
2005
Heat Transfer
Trinath Sahoo
First, prevent problems by selecting the appropriate trap and installing it properly. If problems arise, follow these guidelines for diagnosing and correcting them.

Selecting and Using Bolted Head Closures

April
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
John C. Birkmire, P.E.
Proper design, fabrication, assembly and operation of a pressure vessel closure are essential to ensuring product containment, integrity and quality.

Don’t Let Baffle Tray Flood Baffle You

July
2011
Reactions and Separations
Henry Z. Kister, Matthew Olsson
Use this new correlation based on window liquid velocity to predict baffle tray capacity.

Selecting Entrainers for Azeotropic Distillation

March
2009
Reactions and Separations
Madhura Chiplunkar, Vivek Julka, Lionel O’Young
This systematic methodology uses residue curve maps to identify and evaluate substances that can facilitate distillation by breaking an azeotrope.

Find Mixing Success through Failures - Part 1

October
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
David S. Dickey, Gary K. Patterson
Understanding when and why mixing fails in the laboratory is often the only way of avoiding a similar failure in a production-scale reactor.

Guidelines for Crystallizer Selection and Operation

October
2004
Reactions and Separations
Wayne Genck
Continuous crystallizers serve a wide range of applications in the chemical process industries. Optimize system performance by heeding these practical design and operating principles, which apply to the forced circulation (FC), draft-tube-baffle (...

Efficient Technology Evaluation

February
2007
Critical Issues
Francesco Citro, Reuel Shinnar
To stay competitive in today's economic climate, rapid and effective assessments of new technologies is a must. Requiring a minimal amount of data, this powerful method can effectively evaluate new ideas and research programs at an early stage...

Screw Feeders: A Guide to Selection and Use

February
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Hermann J. Feise, Steven W. Couch, Thomas L. Krieger, Timothy Bell
Gain insight as to what screw feeder is best for your application. Plus, learn how to size, specify and test screw feeders.

Eliminate Iteration from Flow Problems

March
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
John D. Barry
This article introduces a novel approach to solving flow and pipe-sizing problems based on two new dimensionless quantities that are independent of line size and flow.

Understand Thermodynamics to Improve Process Simulations

December
2011
Computational Methods
David Hill, Fred C. Justice, P.E.
Selecting a thermodynamic model is an important step in process simulation — one that many engineers overlook. This overview of applied thermodynamics can help you choose the right model for your process.

Optimize Pipeline Design for Non-Newtonian Fluids

March
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
 Edgar Amaro  Ronces, Cinthya Alejandra Anguilar Guerrero, Alejandro Anaya Durand
Use this graphical method to determine pipe diameter, fluid temperature and pressure drop for laminar and turbulent flow.

Select the Right Spray Nozzle

June
2001
Reactions and Separations
Peter  Welander, Terra L. Vincent
Finding the proper nozzle for specific applications doesn't have to be difficult. By applying basic concepts of nozzle technology, you can create a droplet profile that best suits your needs.

Navigate Phase Equilibria via Residue Curve Maps

November
2002
Reactions and Separations
Raymond N. French, George J. Koplos, Waldo E. de Villiers
These maps provide a rapid, graphical means to visualize the separation possibilities and constraints of azeotropic ternary systems. They also help check the soundness of models used to predict equilibrium data.

Pumping System Head Estimation

February
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
James Anthony
These spreadsheets highlight losses, uncertainties and value of power used, helping you optimize pumping system designs and save on operating costs.

Take the Guesswork Out of FRP Corrosion

December
2001
Fluids and Solids Handling
Gunnar Bergman
The lifetime of fiberglass-reinforced plastic equipment and piping often depend upon previous experience. Here's a way to predict and prolong service life.

Building Models from Simulator Runs

January
2006
Computational Methods
Magali de Macedo, Aad van Veldhoven
The design-of-experiments approach has the advantage of providing the framework to build complex models with minimum use of time and effort.

Choose Materials for High-Temperature Environments

February
2001
Materials
Peter  Elliott
High temperatures, stresses, and the presence of elements such as oxygen, sulfur, or the halogens can add up to trouble. Here is how to screen candidate alloys for such service.

Computational Science: Enabling Technology Development

January
2011
On The Horizon
Anthony Cugini, Wei Ge, Chris Guenther, Jinghai Li, Madhava Syamlal, Wei Wang, Ning Yang
Computational science will play a key role in accelerating technology development and in the realization of virtual process engineering.

Should You Use Enhanced Tubes?

April
2002
Heat Transfer
Graham T. Polley, Mohamad R. Jafari Nasr
Following this procedure to identify a basic exchanger geometry without performing a full exchanger design and to evaluate where and when heat transfer enhancement can be of benefit.

Team Up with a Consultant for Process Equipment Selection

August
2006
Career Catalyst
Gregory T. Benz
Engineers who specify, scale up or purchase process equipment typically have fewer internal or vendor resources available than in the past. This article explores the problem and offers a solution.

Choosing Specialty Metals for Corrosion-Sensitive Equipment

July
2010
Back To Basics
Dean Gambale
Specialty metals should be considered for processes that push beyond the corrosion limits of steel. New composites and surface alloy technologies expand the options for defending against corrosion.

Burning Bright: Trends in Process Integration

July
2001
Process Development
Nick  Hallale 
Process integration has a far wider scope and touches every area of process design. Industries are making more money from their raw materials and capital assets, while becoming cleaner and more sustainable.

Guidelines for Selecting Sterilizing-Grade Filters

March
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
Philip Blosse, Monica Cardona
Determine if your bioprocess needs a sterilizing grade filter, and if so, use these guidelines to select the proper one for your application.

Properly Select Equipment for SIP Systems

August
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
Tony George
Sterilization-in-place (SIP) systems are essential to the operation of many pharmaceutical and biotech facilities. This article reviews design considerations, selection criteria and performance expectations for control valves, regulators, isolation...

Developing Screening Cost Estimates

July
2011
Process Development
Richard P. Palluzi, P.E.
Making decisions based on estimates derived from weak data is counterproductive. Use this established methodology to prepare scoping and screening cost estimates for pilot plants quickly and accurately.

Profiting From Your Pumping System

September
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Aimee McKane  , Vestal Tutterow,  Don Casada
Identify ways to minimize the lifecycle costs of your pumping system

Designing Experiments for the Modern Micro Industries

February
2006
Computational Methods
Phillip H. Williams
Although the sparsity of effects principle is still good advice, we need to be careful of emphasizing it too much -- to the point that it becomes an assumed practice, rather than a useful rule of thumb.

Predicting Emissivities of Combustion Gases

June
2009
Heat Transfer
Alireza Bahadori, Hari B. Vuthaluru
Use this new correlation, which employs easy-to-solve algebraic equations to estimate gas emissivities, to simplify the design and optimization of boilers, furnaces and other combustion equipment.
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