Qualify your design methods for high-viscosity two-phase relief systems against these simple benchmarks. GeorgesMelhem-
Process Design & Development
Ed Fontes, Christian Wollblad, Phil Byrne, Henrik von Schenck
Improve your modeling skills to construct accurate, effective meshes that simulate or optimize a process in less time.
Peter D. Martin, Peter W. Cains , Linda J. McCausland
High-intensity sound initiates nucleation and helps to control crystal size and habit. LindaJ.McCausland-PeterW.Cains-PeterD.Martin-
Robert T Jacobsen
Pre-burning prior to catalyst recovery/refining enhances sampling accuracy for higher returns of the remaining precious metals.
Gregory T. Benz
Fermentation processes are based on chemical engineering principles. Understand these concepts to achieve optimal bioreactor design.
Get a jump on process development by addressing environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues together early in the design and development cycle. The result will be a better process and lower costs.
Costas Tsouris, Joseph V. Porcelli
Many new technologies are being developed, but several important barriers must be overcome before process intensification is widely adopted.
Yasha Zelmanovich, Terrence Fay
Kilo labs are instrumental in scaling up the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients. This article discusses the critical factors that must be considered to design such a facility.
Christopher Haslego, Graham T. Polley
Here's how to incorporate plate-and-frame exchangers into new plant design using pinch analysis.
William B. Glover
Evaluate product characteristics and process requirements to select among the various evaporator designs.
Gregory T. Benz
This commonly used number does not correctly address the influence of viscosity, and has no relationship to performance parameters such as fluid velocity and blend time. This article recommends actual measures of agitator performance that should be...
James R. Risko
Steam trap failure can affect process operations and reduce profits. Choosing the right steam traps can improve reliability and reduce cost.
T. Reg Bott
Here are some insights into the design, operation and research issues associated with heat exchanger fouling.
With a better understanding of seals, their selection, material considerations, and operation requirements, users can greatly improve equipment reliability and reduce operating costs.
William M. Stahl
Match a material's performance to process conditions to reduce leaks, improve safety and extend the mean time between failures (MTBF).
Properties of the feed, specifications for the product, and processing and industry considerations all play a role in selecting the optimum crusher or mill.
Kiran Krishna, William J. Rogers, M. Sam Mannan
In addition to flash point, fire point and auto-ignition temperature, the fluid’s tendency to form a mist should be considered when evaluating fluid safety.
J. Howard Kelly, P.E.
Efficient and reliable pumps can significantly improve a plant’s bottom line. This article reviews important concepts that a chemical engineer must understand and the factors that need to be considered when selecting radial-flow centrifugal pumps.
Satish C. Mohapatra
Consider such factors as thermophysical properties, toxicity, environmental concerns, and economics when choosing a fluid.
Jake Jevric, Muhammad E. Fayed
This method uses a numerical solution to the McCabe-Thiele diagram to find the theoretical number of stages for binary and pseudo-binary systems,then calculates the actual number of stages, reflux ratio and column dimensions.
Gabriel I. Tardos , Brian H. Pittenger, Herman Purutyan
Use these guidelines to avoid potential caking problems. The key steps are to select a material characterization method, identify the factors that can be feasibly controlled and conduct tests to confirm that process/handling changes yield the...
Greg Mehos, P.E.
To assure reliable and safe operation of a dust collector, apply the basic principles of chute and hopper design — which are based on the dust's fundamental flow properties.
Julian B. Fasano, Mark F. Reeder, Kevin J. Myers
It is common knowledge that baffles promote better flow in an agitated vessel, but how to apply them and what kind to use take some ingenuity.
Ka M. Ng, Lionel O'Young, Christianto Wibowo
Use phase diagrams to develop reliable crystallization processes quickly and cost effectively.
Stanley G. Grossel
These commonly used devices rely on an internal medium to extinguish flame fronts and take the punch out of shock waves, protecting piping, equipment and personnel. Selecting such equipment involves considering the probable type of combustion,...
Michael Dietrich, Paul Martin
These tried-and-true tips can streamline the design and construction of your pilot facility, while cutting costs.
Robert Mackey, Tim Flanigan
Today, validation is no longer an afterthought for the design and construction of a new or renovated process or facility. It is, in fact, recognized as an integral part of the total project. Fully integrated services are now available to ensure a...
Thomas G. Lestina, P.E.
The first step in specifying a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is choosing the right shell to meet process requirements.
A high-pressure gas flow in a letdown circuit can cause damage to piping and equipment. Here is how to design a system to avoid damage should a pressurized gas flow occur GianniAnci-
Gregory T. Benz
By performing the necessary pilot work, and rigorously calculating the full-scale performance instead of using simple rules-of-thumb, significant energy savings can be achieved in fermenters.
Using this technique to determine the effective plume-chimney height for an exchanger operating in natural circulation mode.
Lionel O'Young, Vaibhav V. Kelkar
Here is how to integrate overall process development activities and identify practices that facilitate commercial process development.
These distillation setups can cut capital and operating costs by up to 30%, and increase separation efficiency. Here is a straightforward method for evaluation.
Henry Z. Kister
This article explains the principles behind minor-component trapping, summarizes industrial experiences and provides guidelines for diagnosing and addressing the problem.
Ling Du, Gregory T. Benz
Purchasing lower-cost process equipment from vendors in developing nations can be an attractive proposition in times of economic austerity. When sourcing outside local channels, keep the points discussed here in mind to avoid costly problems that go...
Mary Sutera Sardo , Ove B. Christiansen
With short residence times and various design options, these dryers are an efficient and economical choice for a wide variety of solids.
Alex Patist, J. J. Hahn , Aristos Aristidou , Pim van Hoek
Designing an economically competitive and environmentally sustainable fermentation route means considering the downstream separations needed to capture the final product during the initial process design.
To function properly at optimum capacity and efficiency, multi-pass trays must be designed so that the liquid and vapor flows are properly balanced. This article provides guidance on how to achieve that.
William Ho Liam Teng, Gregory T. Benz
Issues such as sterility, isolation and contamination must be considered when choosing seals for use in biotech and pharmaceutical processes. This overview describes common types of seals and offers guidance on selecting the appropriate seal for...
John Crandall, Dave Burgess
Gaskets should be chosen based on service conditions, as well as the type of flanges to be sealed. These principles will help to guide the selection.
John A. Williams
A few basic types of bioreactor designs are used to produce a wide range of products, from antibiotics to foods to fuels. Here's how to pick the best options for your application.
Richard Allen, Jeff Braden, Ben Wagner, J. Todd Osbourne, Donald R. Engelbert, William H. Beever, Uday T. Turaga
Follow these principles to reduce the time required for scale-up and commercialization to improve the resource effectiveness of the effort.
Bertil Stromberg, Thomas Pschorn, J. Brad Cort
Proven commercial-scale equipment already exists for many operations involved in producing biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks.
Kenneth L. Walter, Victor H. Edwards
Avoid runaway reactions by selecting the right pressure-relief system. In certain situations, passive bottom-venting can be an improvement over conventional top-venting pressure relief systems.
Christopher Haslego, Graham T. Polley
Pinch analysis retrofit procedures can be extended to handle compact exchangers.
Save time and money by using equipment and procedures appropriate for the requirements of a demonstration-scale plant.
David C. King, Thomas G. Lestina, R. Stanley Kistler, Christopher A. Bennett
This article defines and explains the factors that affect heat exchanger design margins. With the proper application of design margins, capital costs can be lowered and plant operations improved.
Transforming the performance maps to a reduced coordinate system that is independent of suction conditions and rotational speeds allows these curves to be accurately incorporated into a process simulator.
Elizabeth M. Marshall, Andre Bakker, Ahmad H. Haidari
Using computational fluid dynamics to design commercial-size batch and continuous reactors can eliminate subjective experience and empiricism, leading to better-designed, more-efficient units.
Lew E. Gates, Christopher Henry , Robert J. Wilkens
This article will describe the relationships that must be understood to scale-up fluid mixing processes in non-Newtonian, power-law fluids. The principles described apply to both close-clearance impellers, such as anchors and helixes, and to open...
Rudi Schick, Christine Pagcatipunan
Use these techniques to select, troubleshoot and maintain spray nozzles for optimal results.
Gary K. Patterson, David S. Dickey
Understanding when and why mixing fails in the laboratory is often the only way of avoiding a similar failure in a production-scale reactor. Here we examine mixing in stirred-tank reactors and provide guidance on scale-up.
Nickel and its alloys offer resistance to attack by a wide range of chemicals, including acids, alkalis and salts, making these materials suitable for may CPI applications.
Stephen D. Able
Simulation can help to ensure proper design and performance. Checks can be made for possible problems such as cavitation, and the pump and system can be modified to prevent trouble.
William Wilkie, Victor Norton
Before selecting a centrifuge for your application, understand its principles of operation and investigate the key process variables.
Francesco Picciotti, Marcello Picciotti
This article looks at some common corrosion-resistant alloys and gasket materials that are available for use in applications with high pressures and temperatures.
Victoria N. Kruglov, Michael D. Hagan
Avoid the transition to film boiling to obtain better control and lower operating costs.
Warren D. Seider, James R. Phimister
This processing strategy combines the advantages of batch and continuous operation, providing flexibility and efficiency in a single design.
M. Agrawal, B. D. Kulkarni, V. K. Jayaraman, A. M. Jade
The superior classification and regression abilities of the recently introduced support vector machines offer an attractive alternative to solve a number of process engineering problems.
Use these correlations to compute swirl flowrate and jacket heat-transfer coefficients as functions of agitation nozzle flow.
Bill Scales, Ron Marshall
Annual operating expenses for compressed air systems can exceed the equipment’s purchase price. Follow these seven steps to implement efficiency measures that yield cost reductions.
Jason L. Bagley
Here's a rundown on what submerged combustion is, its advantages and limitations, and how to implement the technology. JasonL.Bagley-
Gregory T. Benz
Optimize fermenter performance and cost by sizing the proper impeller system for your application.
Daniel R. Summers
Use this procedure to design four-pass distillation column trays and to balance the vapor/liquid ratio on each tray panel.
S. Raghavi Chari
Think twice before installing a steam trap. In the case of superheated lines, steam traps may prove to be a waste of time, effort, and money
Sheetal Patel, Kiran Nair, Liyakat Jaffer, Meredith Chapeaux, Trevor Bishop
With so many types and options available, choosing the right control valve can seem daunting. Selection can be simplified by considering the process fluid, the service requirements, how the various valves function, and seeing how each valve will...
First, prevent problems by selecting the appropriate trap and installing it properly. If problems arise, follow these guidelines for diagnosing and correcting them.
John C. Birkmire, P.E.
Proper design, fabrication, assembly and operation of a pressure vessel closure are essential to ensuring product containment, integrity and quality.
Matthew Olsson, Henry Z. Kister
Use this new correlation based on window liquid velocity to predict baffle tray capacity.
Irving J. Dunn, Ronald A. Shelden
Simulation methods offer a way to study the influence of control algorithms and their parameters
Explore how mixing parameters impact the crystallization process and recommend ways to improve the likelihood of successful scaleup. The concepts of nucleation and growth, types of mixing, design considerations, agitator parameters and scaleup...
Lionel O’Young, Madhura Chiplunkar, Vivek Julka
This systematic methodology uses residue curve maps to identify and evaluate substances that can facilitate distillation by breaking an azeotrope.
Gary K. Patterson, David S. Dickey
Understanding when and why mixing fails in the laboratory is often the only way of avoiding a similar failure in a production-scale reactor.
Continuous crystallizers serve a wide range of applications in the chemical process industries. Optimize system performance by heeding these practical design and operating principles, which apply to the forced circulation (FC), draft-tube-baffle (...
Francesco Citro, Reuel Shinnar
To stay competitive in today's economic climate, rapid and effective assessments of new technologies is a must. Requiring a minimal amount of data, this powerful method can effectively evaluate new ideas and research programs at an early stage...
James R. Lines
Placing a freeze-condenser ahead of an ejector system offers several advantages. Here's a look at what such units can do.