Process Design & Development

Innovations in Food Processing

March
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
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G. V.  Barbosa-Cánovas
M. F. San Martín
B. G. Swanson
Today's savvy consumers want processed foods to look freshly prepared, while still meeting all safety requirements. Conventional thermal treatments are inadequate to fulfill this demand. New nonthermal techniques, such as pulsed-electric fields, are...

Rotating Equipment

October
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Kazim Akhtar
Protect compressors and turbines by using piping strainers and following the line procedures outlined in this article.

Basics of Centrifugal Pump Selection

May
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Kimberly Fernandez
Bernadette Pyzdrowski
Drew B. Schiller
Michael B. Smith
Tips for specification and operation that provide for cost-effectiveness and reliability.

Produce Reliable Models with Efficient Meshing

August
2010
Computational Methods
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Henrik von Schenck
Phil Byrne
Christian Wollblad
Ed Fontes
Improve your modeling skills to construct accurate, effective meshes that simulate or optimize a process in less time.

Bioreactor Design for Chemical Engineers

August
2011
Back To Basics
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Gregory T. Benz
Fermentation processes are based on chemical engineering principles. Understand these concepts to achieve optimal bioreactor design.

Integrate EHS for Better Process Design

February
2002
Process Development
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Lisa Bendixen
Get a jump on process development by addressing environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues together early in the design and development cycle. The result will be a better process and lower costs.

Process Intensification: Has Its Time Finally Come?

October
2003
On The Horizon
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Joseph V. Porcelli
Costas Tsouris
Many new technologies are being developed, but several important barriers must be overcome before process intensification is widely adopted.

Designing a Facility for API Development

March
2006
Plant Design
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Terrence Fay
Yasha Zelmanovich
Kilo labs are instrumental in scaling up the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients. This article discusses the critical factors that must be considered to design such a facility.

The G-Value for Agitator Design: Time to Retire It?

March
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Gregory T. Benz
This commonly used number does not correctly address the influence of viscosity, and has no relationship to performance parameters such as fluid velocity and blend time. This article recommends actual measures of agitator performance that should be...

Understanding Steam Traps

February
2011
Back To Basics
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James R. Risko
Steam trap failure can affect process operations and reduce profits. Choosing the right steam traps can improve reliability and reduce cost.

Improving the Reliability of Mechanical Seals

November
2005
Operations And Maintenance
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Michael Huebner
With a better understanding of seals, their selection, material considerations, and operation requirements, users can greatly improve equipment reliability and reduce operating costs.

Choose the Right Elastomer

June
2008
Materials
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William M. Stahl
Match a material's performance to process conditions to reduce leaks, improve safety and extend the mean time between failures (MTBF).

Understand the Fundamentals of Centrifugal Pumps

October
2010
Back To Basics
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J. Howard Kelly, P.E.
Efficient and reliable pumps can significantly improve a plant’s bottom line. This article reviews important concepts that a chemical engineer must understand and the factors that need to be considered when selecting radial-flow centrifugal pumps.

Shortcut Distillation Calculations via Spreadsheets

December
2002
Reactions and Separations
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Muhammad E. Fayed
Jake Jevric
This method uses a numerical solution to the McCabe-Thiele diagram to find the theoretical number of stages for binary and pseudo-binary systems,then calculates the actual number of stages, reflux ratio and column dimensions.

Prevent Caking During Solids Handling

May
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Herman Purutyan
Brian H. Pittenger
Gabriel I. Tardos
Use these guidelines to avoid potential caking problems. The key steps are to select a material characterization method, identify the factors that can be feasibly controlled and conduct tests to confirm that process/handling changes yield the...

Designing Dust Collectors

September
2011
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Greg Mehos, P.E.
To assure reliable and safe operation of a dust collector, apply the basic principles of chute and hopper design — which are based on the dust's fundamental flow properties.

Optimize Mixing by Selecting the Proper Baffles

February
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Kevin J. Myers
Mark F. Reeder
Julian B. Fasano
It is common knowledge that baffles promote better flow in an agitated vessel, but how to apply them and what kind to use take some ingenuity.

Streamlining Crystallization Process Design

January
2004
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Christianto  Wibowo
Lionel O'Young
Ka M. Ng
Use phase diagrams to develop reliable crystallization processes quickly and cost effectively.

Don't Get Burned Picking Dry-Type Flame Arresters

October
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Stanley G. Grossel
These commonly used devices rely on an internal medium to extinguish flame fronts and take the punch out of shock waves, protecting piping, equipment and personnel. Selecting such equipment involves considering the probable type of combustion,...

Streamlining the Validation Process

March
2007
Management
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Tim Flanigan
Robert Mackey
Today, validation is no longer an afterthought for the design and construction of a new or renovated process or facility. It is, in fact, recognized as an integral part of the total project. Fully integrated services are now available to ensure a...

Selecting a Heat Exchanger Shell

June
2011
Back To Basics
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Thomas G. Lestina, P.E.
The first step in specifying a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is choosing the right shell to meet process requirements.

Size Letdown Lines for Pressure Surges

November
2001
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Gianni  Anci
A high-pressure gas flow in a letdown circuit can cause damage to piping and equipment. Here is how to design a system to avoid damage should a pressurized gas flow occur GianniAnci-

Optimize Power Consumption in Aerobic Fermenters

May
2003
Reactions and Separations
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Gregory T. Benz
By performing the necessary pilot work, and rigorously calculating the full-scale performance instead of using simple rules-of-thumb, significant energy savings can be achieved in fermenters.

A Strategy for Excellence in Process Development

October
2008
Process Development
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Vaibhav V. Kelkar
Lionel O'Young
Here is how to integrate overall process development activities and identify practices that facilitate commercial process development.

Squeeze More Out of Complex Columns

July
2002
Reactions and Separations
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Piyush Shah
These distillation setups can cut capital and operating costs by up to 30%, and increase separation efficiency. Here is a straightforward method for evaluation.

Reduce Risk When Sourcing Abroad

October
2010
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Gregory T. Benz
Ling Du
Purchasing lower-cost process equipment from vendors in developing nations can be an attractive proposition in times of economic austerity. When sourcing outside local channels, keep the points discussed here in mind to avoid costly problems that go...

Fermentation Goes Large-Scale

January
2003
Special Section
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Pim van Hoek
Aristos Aristidou
J. J. Hahn
Alex Patist
Designing an economically competitive and environmentally sustainable fermentation route means considering the downstream separations needed to capture the final product during the initial process design.

Ensure Proper Design and Operation of Multi-Pass Trays

June
2005
Reactions and Separations
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Mark Pilling
To function properly at optimum capacity and efficiency, multi-pass trays must be designed so that the liquid and vapor flows are properly balanced. This article provides guidance on how to achieve that.

Selecting Agitator Seals for Bioprocessing Applications

January
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Gregory T. Benz
William Ho Liam Teng
Issues such as sterility, isolation and contamination must be considered when choosing seals for use in biotech and pharmaceutical processes. This overview describes common types of seals and offers guidance on selecting the appropriate seal for...

The Flange Factor in Gasket Selection

September
2011
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Dave Burgess
John Crandall
Gaskets should be chosen based on service conditions, as well as the type of flanges to be sealed. These principles will help to guide the selection.

Keys to Bioreactor Selection

March
2002
Reactions and Separations
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John A. Williams
A few basic types of bioreactor designs are used to produce a wide range of products, from antibiotics to foods to fuels. Here's how to pick the best options for your application.

Succeed at Catalyst Scale-Up

June
2006
Reactions and Separations
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Uday T. Turaga
Donald R. Engelbert
William H. Beever
J. Todd Osbourne
Ben Wagner
Richard Allen
Jeff Braden
Follow these principles to reduce the time required for scale-up and commercialization to improve the resource effectiveness of the effort.

Minimize Scale-Up Risk

March
2010
SBE Special Section
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J. Brad Cort
Thomas Pschorn
Bertil Stromberg
Proven commercial-scale equipment already exists for many operations involved in producing biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks.

Improving Heat Exchanger Designs

April
2007
Heat Transfer
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Christopher A. Bennett
R. Stanley Kistler
Thomas G. Lestina
David C. King
This article defines and explains the factors that affect heat exchanger design margins. With the proper application of design margins, capital costs can be lowered and plant operations improved.

Integrate Compressor Performance Maps into Process Simulation

June
2011
Computational Methods
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Grant Stephenson
Transforming the performance maps to a reduced coordinate system that is independent of suction conditions and rotational speeds allows these curves to be accurately incorporated into a process simulator.

Design Reactors via CFD

December
2001
Reactions and Separations
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Ahmad H. Haidari
Andre Bakker
Elizabeth M. Marshall
Using computational fluid dynamics to design commercial-size batch and continuous reactors can eliminate subjective experience and empiricism, leading to better-designed, more-efficient units.

How to Scale-Up Mixing Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids

May
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Robert J. Wilkens
Christopher Henry
 Lew E. Gates
This article will describe the relationships that must be understood to scale-up fluid mixing processes in non-Newtonian, power-law fluids. The principles described apply to both close-clearance impellers, such as anchors and helixes, and to open...

Find Mixing Success Through Failures - Part 2

December
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
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David S. Dickey
Gary K. Patterson
Understanding when and why mixing fails in the laboratory is often the only way of avoiding a similar failure in a production-scale reactor. Here we examine mixing in stirred-tank reactors and provide guidance on scale-up.

Selecting Nickel Alloys for Corrosive Applications

May
2007
Materials
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Paul Crook
Nickel and its alloys offer resistance to attack by a wide range of chemicals, including acids, alkalis and salts, making these materials suitable for may CPI applications.

Clarifying Centrifuge Operation and Selection

August
2004
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Victor Norton
 William Wilkie
Before selecting a centrifuge for your application, understand its principles of operation and investigate the key process variables.

Selecting Corrosion-Resistant Materials

December
2006
Materials
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Marcello Picciotti
Francesco Picciotti
This article looks at some common corrosion-resistant alloys and gasket materials that are available for use in applications with high pressures and temperatures.

Bridge the Gap with Semicontinuous Distillation

August
2001
Reactions and Separations
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James R. Phimister
 Warren D. Seider
This processing strategy combines the advantages of batch and continuous operation, providing flexibility and efficiency in a single design.

Reduce Your Compressed Air Costs

October
2011
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Ron Marshall
Bill Scales
Annual operating expenses for compressed air systems can exceed the equipment’s purchase price. Follow these seven steps to implement efficiency measures that yield cost reductions.

Designing Four-Pass Trays

April
2010
Back To Basics
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Daniel R. Summers
Use this procedure to design four-pass distillation column trays and to balance the vapor/liquid ratio on each tray panel.

Take Another Look at Steam Traps

June
2001
Fluids and Solids Handling
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S. Raghavi  Chari
Think twice before installing a steam trap. In the case of superheated lines, steam traps may prove to be a waste of time, effort, and money

Ease Control Valve Selection

November
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Trevor Bishop
Meredith Chapeaux
Liyakat Jaffer
Kiran Nair
Sheetal Patel
With so many types and options available, choosing the right control valve can seem daunting. Selection can be simplified by considering the process fluid, the service requirements, how the various valves function, and seeing how each valve will...

Steam Trap Troubles?

February
2005
Heat Transfer
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Trinath Sahoo
First, prevent problems by selecting the appropriate trap and installing it properly. If problems arise, follow these guidelines for diagnosing and correcting them.

Selecting and Using Bolted Head Closures

April
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
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John C. Birkmire, P.E.
Proper design, fabrication, assembly and operation of a pressure vessel closure are essential to ensuring product containment, integrity and quality.

Don’t Let Baffle Tray Flood Baffle You

July
2011
Reactions and Separations
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Henry Z. Kister
Matthew Olsson
Use this new correlation based on window liquid velocity to predict baffle tray capacity.

Optimizing Crystallizer Scaleup

June
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
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Wayne Genck
Explore how mixing parameters impact the crystallization process and recommend ways to improve the likelihood of successful scaleup. The concepts of nucleation and growth, types of mixing, design considerations, agitator parameters and scaleup...

Selecting Entrainers for Azeotropic Distillation

March
2009
Reactions and Separations
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Vivek Julka
Madhura Chiplunkar
Lionel O’Young
This systematic methodology uses residue curve maps to identify and evaluate substances that can facilitate distillation by breaking an azeotrope.

Find Mixing Success through Failures - Part 1

October
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
__
David S. Dickey
Gary K. Patterson
Understanding when and why mixing fails in the laboratory is often the only way of avoiding a similar failure in a production-scale reactor.
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