Process Design & Development

Selecting Corrosion-Resistant Materials

December
2006
Materials
Marcello Picciotti
This article looks at some common corrosion-resistant alloys and gasket materials that are available for use in applications with high pressures and temperatures.

Bridge the Gap with Semicontinuous Distillation

August
2001
Reactions and Separations
James R. Phimister
This processing strategy combines the advantages of batch and continuous operation, providing flexibility and efficiency in a single design.

Reduce Your Compressed Air Costs

October
2011
Fluids and Solids Handling
Ron Marshall
Annual operating expenses for compressed air systems can exceed the equipment’s purchase price. Follow these seven steps to implement efficiency measures that yield cost reductions.

Designing Four-Pass Trays

April
2010
Back To Basics
Daniel R. Summers
Use this procedure to design four-pass distillation column trays and to balance the vapor/liquid ratio on each tray panel.

Take Another Look at Steam Traps

June
2001
Fluids and Solids Handling
S. Raghavi  Chari
Think twice before installing a steam trap. In the case of superheated lines, steam traps may prove to be a waste of time, effort, and money

Ease Control Valve Selection

November
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
Trevor Bishop
With so many types and options available, choosing the right control valve can seem daunting. Selection can be simplified by considering the process fluid, the service requirements, how the various valves function, and seeing how each valve will...

Steam Trap Troubles?

February
2005
Heat Transfer
Trinath Sahoo
First, prevent problems by selecting the appropriate trap and installing it properly. If problems arise, follow these guidelines for diagnosing and correcting them.

Selecting and Using Bolted Head Closures

April
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
John C. Birkmire, P.E.
Proper design, fabrication, assembly and operation of a pressure vessel closure are essential to ensuring product containment, integrity and quality.

Optimizing Crystallizer Scaleup

June
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Wayne Genck
Explore how mixing parameters impact the crystallization process and recommend ways to improve the likelihood of successful scaleup. The concepts of nucleation and growth, types of mixing, design considerations, agitator parameters and scaleup...

Selecting Entrainers for Azeotropic Distillation

March
2009
Reactions and Separations
Vivek Julka
This systematic methodology uses residue curve maps to identify and evaluate substances that can facilitate distillation by breaking an azeotrope.

Find Mixing Success through Failures - Part 1

October
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
David S. Dickey
Understanding when and why mixing fails in the laboratory is often the only way of avoiding a similar failure in a production-scale reactor.

Guidelines for Crystallizer Selection and Operation

October
2004
Reactions and Separations
Wayne Genck
Continuous crystallizers serve a wide range of applications in the chemical process industries. Optimize system performance by heeding these practical design and operating principles, which apply to the forced circulation (FC), draft-tube-baffle (...

Efficient Technology Evaluation

February
2007
Critical Issues
Reuel Shinnar
To stay competitive in today's economic climate, rapid and effective assessments of new technologies is a must. Requiring a minimal amount of data, this powerful method can effectively evaluate new ideas and research programs at an early stage...

Screw Feeders: A Guide to Selection and Use

February
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Timothy Bell
Gain insight as to what screw feeder is best for your application. Plus, learn how to size, specify and test screw feeders.

Eliminate Iteration from Flow Problems

March
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
John D. Barry
This article introduces a novel approach to solving flow and pipe-sizing problems based on two new dimensionless quantities that are independent of line size and flow.

Understand Thermodynamics to Improve Process Simulations

December
2011
Computational Methods
David Hill
Selecting a thermodynamic model is an important step in process simulation — one that many engineers overlook. This overview of applied thermodynamics can help you choose the right model for your process.

Increase Powder Flow via Gas Injection

July
2006
Fluids and Solids Handling
Herman Purutyan
Fluidization and air-assisted discharge are two ways to optimize fine-solids handling. However, the choice of technology is as important as designing and operating the system properly.

Select the Right Spray Nozzle

June
2001
Reactions and Separations
Peter  Welander
Finding the proper nozzle for specific applications doesn't have to be difficult. By applying basic concepts of nozzle technology, you can create a droplet profile that best suits your needs.

Navigate Phase Equilibria via Residue Curve Maps

November
2002
Reactions and Separations
Waldo E. de Villiers
These maps provide a rapid, graphical means to visualize the separation possibilities and constraints of azeotropic ternary systems. They also help check the soundness of models used to predict equilibrium data.

Pumping System Head Estimation

February
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
James Anthony
These spreadsheets highlight losses, uncertainties and value of power used, helping you optimize pumping system designs and save on operating costs.

Selecting Laboratory Reactors

August
2007
Reactions and Separations
Marcello Picciotti
This article outlines some of the considerations involved in selecting and specifying a reactor system for research and development applications.

Reduce Piloting Time and Cost

July
2011
Process Development
David A. Berg
Pilot-scale experimentation is essential to establish a sound foundation for a new chemical processing unit. These best practices can reduce the time and cost involved in process development.

Take the Guesswork Out of FRP Corrosion

December
2001
Fluids and Solids Handling
Gunnar Bergman
The lifetime of fiberglass-reinforced plastic equipment and piping often depend upon previous experience. Here's a way to predict and prolong service life.

Building Models from Simulator Runs

January
2006
Computational Methods
Magali de Macedo
The design-of-experiments approach has the advantage of providing the framework to build complex models with minimum use of time and effort.

Choose Materials for High-Temperature Environments

February
2001
Materials
Peter  Elliott
High temperatures, stresses, and the presence of elements such as oxygen, sulfur, or the halogens can add up to trouble. Here is how to screen candidate alloys for such service.

Integrate Process Simulation and Process Synthesis

October
2005
Computational Methods
Dominic Chwan Yee Foo
The design of a new process using computer simulations to analyze a process flowsheet based on the onion model can save time, effort and, ultimately, money.

Should You Use Enhanced Tubes?

April
2002
Heat Transfer
Graham T. Polley
Following this procedure to identify a basic exchanger geometry without performing a full exchanger design and to evaluate where and when heat transfer enhancement can be of benefit.

Team Up with a Consultant for Process Equipment Selection

August
2006
Career Catalyst
Gregory T. Benz
Engineers who specify, scale up or purchase process equipment typically have fewer internal or vendor resources available than in the past. This article explores the problem and offers a solution.

Choosing Specialty Metals for Corrosion-Sensitive Equipment

July
2010
Back To Basics
Dean Gambale
Specialty metals should be considered for processes that push beyond the corrosion limits of steel. New composites and surface alloy technologies expand the options for defending against corrosion.

Burning Bright: Trends in Process Integration

July
2001
Process Development
Nick  Hallale 
Process integration has a far wider scope and touches every area of process design. Industries are making more money from their raw materials and capital assets, while becoming cleaner and more sustainable.

Evaluating the Economics of Desalination

December
2002
Heat Transfer
Hisham M. Ettouney
This article presents an in-depth analysis of thermal and membrane desalination economics and outlines a simple procedure for calculating the unit product cost for various desalination processes.

Properly Select Equipment for SIP Systems

August
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
Tony George
Sterilization-in-place (SIP) systems are essential to the operation of many pharmaceutical and biotech facilities. This article reviews design considerations, selection criteria and performance expectations for control valves, regulators, isolation...

Developing Screening Cost Estimates

July
2011
Process Development
Richard P. Palluzi, P.E.
Making decisions based on estimates derived from weak data is counterproductive. Use this established methodology to prepare scoping and screening cost estimates for pilot plants quickly and accurately.

Designing Experiments for the Modern Micro Industries

February
2006
Computational Methods
Phillip H. Williams
Although the sparsity of effects principle is still good advice, we need to be careful of emphasizing it too much -- to the point that it becomes an assumed practice, rather than a useful rule of thumb.

Predicting Emissivities of Combustion Gases

June
2009
Heat Transfer
Alireza Bahadori
Use this new correlation, which employs easy-to-solve algebraic equations to estimate gas emissivities, to simplify the design and optimization of boilers, furnaces and other combustion equipment.

Hydrogen: Liability or Asset?

September
2002
Reactions and Separations
Nick  Hallale
In a petroleum refinery, viewing hydrogen as an asset rather than a liability can lead to increased profits. The key is in the mindset. A typical investor uses money to make money. This article shows you how to use hydrogen to make money.

Selecting a Membrane Filtration System

December
2004
Fluids and Solids Handling
Wu Chen
Proper design and scaleup of a membrane filtration system requires an understanding of the availability of membrane material, pore size and module configurations. These practical guidelines will help in the selection process.

Scaling Fixed-Bed Catalyzed Processes

March
2007
Reactions and Separations
Jonathan H. Worstell
The new parameter introduced here will yield more meaningful results when a fixed-bed reactor is scaled up for process development or scaled down for plant support.

Improve Flange Joint Reliability

January
2011
Back To Basics
Thomas Sandbrook
Proper design, installation, and maintenance of flanged connection systems can prevent loss of containment and process interruptions. Follow this seven-step approach to ensure reliability of this critical process equipment.

Principles and Case Studies of Simultaneous Design

September, 2011
There are many comprehensive design books, but none of them provide a significant number of detailed economic design examples of typically complex industrial processes. Most of the current design books cover a wide variety of topics associated with process design. In addition to discussing...

Pump Wisdom: Problem Solving for Operators and Specialists

April, 2011
An accessible guide to the main reasons pumps fail—and what can be done about it Workhorses in many different industries, including the oil industry, water industry, chemical industry, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry to name a few, pumps are a vital contributor to maintaining and...

Teach Yourself the Basics of Aspen Plus

January, 2011
Aspen Plus is on of the most popular process simulation software programs used industrially and academically. Though the software is available at many corporations and universities, there are no textbooks which are dedicated to teaching the step-by-step use of the software. This book is designed to...

Reactive Distillation Design and Control

October, 2008
After an overview of the fundamentals, limitations, and scope of reactive distillation, this book uses rigorous models for steady-state design and dynamic analysis of different types of reactive distillation columns and quantitatively compares the economics of reactive distillation columns with...

Chemical Reactor Design, Optimization, and Scaleup, 2nd Edition

August, 2008
Chemical Reactor Design, Optimization, and Scaleup is the authoritative sourcebook on chemical reactors. This new Second Edition consolidates the latest information on current optimization and scaleup methodologies, numerical methods, and biochemical and polymer reactions. It provides the...

Chemical Reactor Design and Control

August, 2007
Chemical Reactor Design and Control uses process simulators like Matlab, Aspen Plus, and Aspen Dynamics to study the design of chemical reactors and their dynamic control. There are numerous books that focus on steady-state reactor design. There are no books that consider practical control systems...

Distillation Design and Control Using Aspen Simulation

April, 2006
As the world continues to seek new sources of energy, the distillation process remains one of the most important separation methods in the chemical, petroleum, and energy industries. And as new renewable sources of energy and chemical feedstocks become more universally utilized, the issues of...
Subscribe to Process Design & Development