Process Design & Development

Designing Pneumatic Conveying Systems

May
2006
Fluids and Solids Handling
Eric Maynard
Use this 9-step methodology to design and operate a reliable and cost-effective system to efficiently transport materials.

Understanding Crystallization and Crystallizers

October
2006
Fluids and Solids Handling
Ketan D. Samant, Lionel O'Young
Gain qualitative insight into the basic mechanisms of crystallization, the principles of crystallizer operation, and the ways in which these concepts relate to the selection and application of the various crystallizer configurations in industrial...

Piloting Bioreactors for Agitation Scale-Up

February
2008
Reactions and Separations
Gregory T. Benz
This article offers guidance on how to design appropriate experiments to measure scalable data for agitation in both aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors.

Cost Management in Heat-Transfer-Fluid Systems

July
2006
Heat Transfer
Conrad E. Gamble, P.E.
By taking ownership of fluid-related decisions for the entire life of the project, from design through dismantling, users can secure the best and lowest-cost approach in process heating and cooling.

Designing Suspension-Mixing Systems

January
2006
Fluids and Solids Handling
Frantisek Rieger, Pavel Ditl
Impeller and vessel geometries are key factors in selecting mixing equipment to efficiently suspend particulate solids in slurries

Apply an Integrated Approach to Catalytic Process Design

February
2007
Reactions and Separations
James Nehlsen, Mitrajit Mukherjee, Richard V. Porcelli
To ensure a practical, efficient and economically viable process, first consider how a successful catalytic reaction system would work, then focus on making a catalyst with the desired characteristics.

Successfully Scale Up Solids Handling

April
2008
Fluids and Solids Handling
John W. Carson, K. Eric Bengtson, Thomas G. Troxel
A sound theoretical model of the process to be scaled is the best approach; if one is not available, bench-scale testing, physical scale modeling or full-scale modeling is required. Here are guidelines as to which method is appropriate for various...

Optimal Automated Process Fault Analysis

January, 2013
With this book as their guide, readers have a powerful new tool for ensuring the safety and reliability of any chemical processing system. It details a tested and proven strategy to develop optimal automated process fault analyzers.

Harnessing the Power of Virtual Reality

July
2012
On The Horizon
Bona Lu, Fanxiao Meng, Jinghai Li, Li Guo, Mingkun Zhao, Xinhua Liu, Zhaojie Xia, Zhouzhou Li
Advances in physical modeling and computational science will revolutionize the way engineers develop and design new technologies and processes.

Design and Control of Distillation Systems for Separating Azeotropes

March, 2010
Hands-on guidance for the design, control, and operation of azeotropic distillation systems Following this book's step-by-step guidance, readers learn to master tested and proven methods to overcome a major problem in chemical processing: the distillation and separation of azeotropes. Practical in...

Rapid Process Design

September
2006
Reactions and Separations
Michael Doherty, Sagar B. Gadewar
Use this structured approach, which combines preliminary experimental data with predictive methods and heuristics, to quickly generate and screen process alternatives at the early stages of a new venture.

Handle Bulk Solids Safely and Effectively

September
2009
Fluids and Solids Handling
Eric Maynard, Greg Mehos and Eric Maynard
Follow these guidelines for proper design of bins, hoppers, and feeders to avoid operational and safety problems.

Succeed at Process Integration

January
2004
Career Catalyst
Alan Rossiter
In the application of pinch analysis for energy efficiency improvement and process optimization, technical excellence is necessary and human interactions are important for project success.

Improve Energy Efficiency via Heat Integration

December
2010
Heat Transfer
Alan Rossiter
Process heat integration using pinch analysis is a respected tool for achieving energy efficiency. This article explains what pinch analysis is and how to use it in process design and operation to attain real-world energy efficiency gains.

Process Synthesis: Poised for a Wider Role

April
2001
On The Horizon
W. R. Johns
Software for generating process designs has made relatively limited inroads so far. But, it now is set to follow simulation and become a tool routinely used by chemical engineers.

Create Business Value Through Process Modeling

September
2007
Management
Bernard McGarvey
As businesses strive to improve productivity, process modeling can be a powerful tool. This article explores the role of modeling in enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of process development and manufacturing.

Determine the Optimum Number of Process Trains

January
2010
Back To Basics
Gregory T. Benz
This article demonstrates that the repair and expense costs of process trains are not proportional to their capital costs and that, in most cases, building one plant with a single process train is the most economically efficient choice. <br>...

Understanding Electromagnetic Flowmeters

May
2010
Instrumentation
Ronald W. DiGiacomo
Consisting of a flow tube, field-generating coils, electrodes, and a transmitter, a magmeter accurately measures the flowrate of conductive fluids over a wide range of conditions.

Selecting In-Process Particle-Size Analyzers

August
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Paul Barrett
To select the proper instrument for process monitoring, one must determine what attribute of the particle system impacts the process or product parameter of concern. Once the size region is identified, it can be tracked in-process, opening up the...

Designing a Process Flowsheet

May
2009
Back To Basics
Vornel Walker
Piping and instrumentation diagrams belong to a family of flowsheets that includes block flow diagrams and process flow diagrams. Technology advances have transformed these resources into intelligent documents, capable of storing layers of digital...

Basic Process Measurements

June, 2009
A unique resource for process measurement Basic Process Measurements provides a unique resource explaining the industrial measuring devices that gauge such key variables as temperature, pressure, density, level, and flow. With an emphasis on the most commonly installed technologies, this guide...

The Yoga of Process Development

AIChE Annual Meeting
Nov 17, 2008
Process Development is analogous to Yoga. It is a ‘Yoga' – a disciplined process for integrating the essential components to create a vision of the ‘...

Burning Bright: Trends in Process Integration

July
2001
Process Development
Nick  Hallale 
Process integration has a far wider scope and touches every area of process design. Industries are making more money from their raw materials and capital assets, while becoming cleaner and more sustainable.

Evaluating the Economics of Desalination

December
2002
Heat Transfer
Hisham M. Ettouney, Hisham T. El-Dessouky, Peter J. Gowin, Ron S. Faibish
This article presents an in-depth analysis of thermal and membrane desalination economics and outlines a simple procedure for calculating the unit product cost for various desalination processes.

Guidelines for Selecting Sterilizing-Grade Filters

March
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
Monica Cardona, Philip Blosse
Determine if your bioprocess needs a sterilizing grade filter, and if so, use these guidelines to select the proper one for your application.

Properly Select Equipment for SIP Systems

August
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
Tony George
Sterilization-in-place (SIP) systems are essential to the operation of many pharmaceutical and biotech facilities. This article reviews design considerations, selection criteria and performance expectations for control valves, regulators, isolation...

Developing Screening Cost Estimates

July
2011
Process Development
Richard P. Palluzi, P.E.
Making decisions based on estimates derived from weak data is counterproductive. Use this established methodology to prepare scoping and screening cost estimates for pilot plants quickly and accurately.

Profiting From Your Pumping System

September
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Aimee McKane  , Vestal Tutterow,  Don Casada
Identify ways to minimize the lifecycle costs of your pumping system

Designing Experiments for the Modern Micro Industries

February
2006
Computational Methods
Phillip H. Williams
Although the sparsity of effects principle is still good advice, we need to be careful of emphasizing it too much -- to the point that it becomes an assumed practice, rather than a useful rule of thumb.

Predicting Emissivities of Combustion Gases

June
2009
Heat Transfer
Alireza Bahadori, Hari B. Vuthaluru
Use this new correlation, which employs easy-to-solve algebraic equations to estimate gas emissivities, to simplify the design and optimization of boilers, furnaces and other combustion equipment.

Hydrogen: Liability or Asset?

September
2002
Reactions and Separations
Dennis Vauk, Ian Moore, Nick  Hallale
In a petroleum refinery, viewing hydrogen as an asset rather than a liability can lead to increased profits. The key is in the mindset. A typical investor uses money to make money. This article shows you how to use hydrogen to make money.

Selecting a Membrane Filtration System

December
2004
Fluids and Solids Handling
Frank Parma , Wu Chen
Proper design and scaleup of a membrane filtration system requires an understanding of the availability of membrane material, pore size and module configurations. These practical guidelines will help in the selection process.

Scaling Fixed-Bed Catalyzed Processes

March
2007
Reactions and Separations
Jonathan H. Worstell
The new parameter introduced here will yield more meaningful results when a fixed-bed reactor is scaled up for process development or scaled down for plant support.

Improve Flange Joint Reliability

January
2011
Back To Basics
John Ludman, Mike Emery, Thomas Sandbrook
Proper design, installation, and maintenance of flanged connection systems can prevent loss of containment and process interruptions. Follow this seven-step approach to ensure reliability of this critical process equipment.

Run Clean with Dry Vacuum Pumps

October
2001
Fluids and Solids Handling
Jim  Ryans, Joe  Bays
The use of dry pumps is growing, replacing workhorse steam jets and liquid-ring pumps. Here is a comprehensive selection guide.

Innovations in Food Processing

March
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
B. G. Swanson, G. V.  Barbosa-Cánovas, M. F. San Martín
Today's savvy consumers want processed foods to look freshly prepared, while still meeting all safety requirements. Conventional thermal treatments are inadequate to fulfill this demand. New nonthermal techniques, such as pulsed-electric fields, are...

Rotating Equipment

October
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
Kazim Akhtar
Protect compressors and turbines by using piping strainers and following the line procedures outlined in this article.

Basics of Centrifugal Pump Selection

May
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
Bernadette Pyzdrowski, Drew B. Schiller, Kimberly Fernandez, Michael B. Smith
Tips for specification and operation that provide for cost-effectiveness and reliability.

Produce Reliable Models with Efficient Meshing

August
2010
Computational Methods
Christian Wollblad, Ed Fontes, Henrik von Schenck, Phil Byrne
Improve your modeling skills to construct accurate, effective meshes that simulate or optimize a process in less time.

Bioreactor Design for Chemical Engineers

August
2011
Back To Basics
Gregory T. Benz
Fermentation processes are based on chemical engineering principles. Understand these concepts to achieve optimal bioreactor design.

Integrate EHS for Better Process Design

February
2002
Process Development
Lisa Bendixen
Get a jump on process development by addressing environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues together early in the design and development cycle. The result will be a better process and lower costs.

Process Intensification: Has Its Time Finally Come?

October
2003
On The Horizon
Costas Tsouris, Joseph V. Porcelli
Many new technologies are being developed, but several important barriers must be overcome before process intensification is widely adopted.

Designing a Facility for API Development

March
2006
Plant Design
Terrence Fay, Yasha Zelmanovich
Kilo labs are instrumental in scaling up the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients. This article discusses the critical factors that must be considered to design such a facility.

The G-Value for Agitator Design: Time to Retire It?

March
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
Gregory T. Benz
This commonly used number does not correctly address the influence of viscosity, and has no relationship to performance parameters such as fluid velocity and blend time. This article recommends actual measures of agitator performance that should be...

Understanding Steam Traps

February
2011
Back To Basics
James R. Risko
Steam trap failure can affect process operations and reduce profits. Choosing the right steam traps can improve reliability and reduce cost.

Improving the Reliability of Mechanical Seals

November
2005
Operations And Maintenance
Michael Huebner
With a better understanding of seals, their selection, material considerations, and operation requirements, users can greatly improve equipment reliability and reduce operating costs.

Choose the Right Elastomer

June
2008
Materials
William M. Stahl
Match a material's performance to process conditions to reduce leaks, improve safety and extend the mean time between failures (MTBF).

Understand the Fundamentals of Centrifugal Pumps

October
2010
Back To Basics
J. Howard Kelly, P.E.
Efficient and reliable pumps can significantly improve a plant’s bottom line. This article reviews important concepts that a chemical engineer must understand and the factors that need to be considered when selecting radial-flow centrifugal pumps.

Shortcut Distillation Calculations via Spreadsheets

December
2002
Reactions and Separations
Jake Jevric, Muhammad E. Fayed
This method uses a numerical solution to the McCabe-Thiele diagram to find the theoretical number of stages for binary and pseudo-binary systems,then calculates the actual number of stages, reflux ratio and column dimensions.

Prevent Caking During Solids Handling

May
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
Brian H. Pittenger, Gabriel I. Tardos , Herman Purutyan
Use these guidelines to avoid potential caking problems. The key steps are to select a material characterization method, identify the factors that can be feasibly controlled and conduct tests to confirm that process/handling changes yield the...

Designing Dust Collectors

September
2011
Fluids and Solids Handling
Greg Mehos, P.E.
To assure reliable and safe operation of a dust collector, apply the basic principles of chute and hopper design — which are based on the dust's fundamental flow properties.

Optimize Mixing by Selecting the Proper Baffles

February
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
Julian B. Fasano, Kevin J. Myers, Mark F. Reeder
It is common knowledge that baffles promote better flow in an agitated vessel, but how to apply them and what kind to use take some ingenuity.

Streamlining Crystallization Process Design

January
2004
Fluids and Solids Handling
Christianto  Wibowo, Ka M. Ng, Lionel O'Young
Use phase diagrams to develop reliable crystallization processes quickly and cost effectively.

Don't Get Burned Picking Dry-Type Flame Arresters

October
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
Stanley G. Grossel
These commonly used devices rely on an internal medium to extinguish flame fronts and take the punch out of shock waves, protecting piping, equipment and personnel. Selecting such equipment involves considering the probable type of combustion,...

Streamlining the Validation Process

March
2007
Management
Robert Mackey, Tim Flanigan
Today, validation is no longer an afterthought for the design and construction of a new or renovated process or facility. It is, in fact, recognized as an integral part of the total project. Fully integrated services are now available to ensure a...

Selecting a Heat Exchanger Shell

June
2011
Back To Basics
Thomas G. Lestina, P.E.
The first step in specifying a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is choosing the right shell to meet process requirements.

Size Letdown Lines for Pressure Surges

November
2001
Fluids and Solids Handling
Gianni  Anci
A high-pressure gas flow in a letdown circuit can cause damage to piping and equipment. Here is how to design a system to avoid damage should a pressurized gas flow occur GianniAnci-
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