Plant Operations

Understanding Steam Traps

February
2011
Back To Basics
James R. Risko
Steam trap failure can affect process operations and reduce profits. Choosing the right steam traps can improve reliability and reduce cost.

Evaluating Dryers for New Services

December
2003
Heat Transfer
Charles G. Moyers
Continuous dryers are accurately and easily evaluated using laboratory-scale simulators combined with the specific drying rate approach.

Preventing Maldistribution in Multi-Pass Trays

April
2010
Reactions and Separations
Henry Z. Kister, Matthew R. Olsson, Richard Dionne, Walter J. Stupin
This method, based on hydraulic equations in the open literature, calculates vapor/liquid distribution in four-pass trays to correctly predict flooding and efficiency.

Follow These Best Practices in Steam System Management

December
2001
Heat Transfer
David  Jaber, Fred L. Hart, Gilbert A. McCoy
These tips on how to improve steam generation, distribution and recovery can help a plant to increase its steam system efficiency by as much as 20-30%.

Rotating Equipment

October
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
Kazim Akhtar
Protect compressors and turbines by using piping strainers and following the line procedures outlined in this article.

Nitrogen: A Security Blanket for the Chemical Industry

November
2011
Fluids and Solids Handling
Bill Carlson, Joe Dumoit, Paul Yanisko, Shiying Zheng
The benefits of nitrogen blanketing include improved process safety, better product quality, and longer equipment life. Here's how to achieve the desired safety or quality results while minimizing costs.

Properly Clean Out Your Organic Heat-Transfer Fluid System

May
2001
Heat Transfer
Ander  Beain, Jay  Heidari,  Conrad  Gamble
Follow these guidelines for applying side-stream filtration to on-line cleaning, and chemical or mechanical cleaning to equipment that has been drained of fluid.

Beware of Pitfalls of Carbon Dioxide Freezing Prediction

March
2005
Heat Transfer
Steve Chafin , Tim Eggeman
Carbon dioxide freezing in a cryogenic system can result in plugging and other operational problems. This article offers insights into the carbon dioxide freezing phenomenon.

Minimize Mechanical Integrity Budget Battles

February
2011
Safety
Daniel A. Long, P.E., Jack McCavit
Chemical processing and manufacturing plants must ensure the mechanical integrity of their equipment. These strategies and tactics can make doing so easier when budget issues arise.

Hydrogen: Liability or Asset?

September
2002
Reactions and Separations
Dennis Vauk, Ian Moore, Nick  Hallale
In a petroleum refinery, viewing hydrogen as an asset rather than a liability can lead to increased profits. The key is in the mindset. A typical investor uses money to make money. This article shows you how to use hydrogen to make money.

Improving the Reliability of Mechanical Seals

November
2005
Operations And Maintenance
Michael Huebner
With a better understanding of seals, their selection, material considerations, and operation requirements, users can greatly improve equipment reliability and reduce operating costs.

Learn to Effectively Operate and Maintain Pumps

December
2011
Back To Basics
Daniel Kernan
Centrifugal pumps play a central role in chemical processing. Proper pump operation and maintenance can improve a facility's productivity, reduce downtime, and trim costs.

Handling Flammable Liquids

July
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
James C. Mulligan
Identify electrostatic hazards associated with liquid processing and understand the precautions available to control them.

Rx for Pharma

March
2009
Critical Issues
Girish Malhotra, P.E.
Chemical engineers could hold the key that helps pharmaceutical companies — facing pressure to control rising drug prices and competition from generics — reduce their manufacturing costs.

Improve and Maintain Cooling Tower Efficiency

April
2005
Heat Transfer
James L. Willa
Changing maintenance and/or operating procedures can significantly increase cooling tower performance without major capital expenditures. Here are some tips for ensuring proper design and operation of major tower components.

Don't Get Burned Picking Dry-Type Flame Arresters

October
2002
Fluids and Solids Handling
Stanley G. Grossel
These commonly used devices rely on an internal medium to extinguish flame fronts and take the punch out of shock waves, protecting piping, equipment and personnel. Selecting such equipment involves considering the probable type of combustion,...

Avoid Problems in Process Water Systems

October
2007
Heat Transfer
Marilyn W. Blaschke, Roger D. Metzler
Prevent corrosion, emulsification and fouling by implementing these operational and chemical measures.

Use Oxygen to Improve Combustion and Oxidation

July
2010
Reactions and Separations
Nancy C. Easterbrook, Reed J. Hendershot, Timothy D. Lebrecht
Substituting oxygen for air is often a low-cost, easy-to-implement option that can reduce capital costs, lower emissions, and improve process flexibility and reliability.

Safely Handle Powdered Solids

December
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
Daniel E. Silva, Robert Zalosh, Russell Kahn, Stanley S. Grossel
Understand some of the accident scenarios that result in dust explosions, and follow these suggestions for preventing them.

Examining X-Ray Technology

March
2009
Fluids and Solids Handling
Ray Spurgeon
Use X-ray inspection to see whether your product is contaminant-free and packaged properly.

Optimize Heat Exchanger Cleaning Schedules

June
2001
Heat Transfer
Brendan R. O'Donnel, Bruce A. Barna, Chris D. Gosling
Get the most out of your heat exchanger by evaluating the trade-offs between a one-time expenditure and reduced operating expenses, increased income, and/or longer operating life span. Brendan R. O'Donnell - Bruce A. Barna - Chris D. Gosling -

Identifying Corrosion and Its Causes

April
2011
Fluids and Solids Handling
Gary Geiger, Mel J. Esmacher, P.E.
An important first step in maintaining equipment reliability and efficiency is understanding the various types of corrosion damage that can occur.

Principles and Case Studies of Simultaneous Design

September, 2011
There are many comprehensive design books, but none of them provide a significant number of detailed economic design examples of typically complex industrial processes. Most of the current design books cover a wide variety of topics associated with process design. In addition to discussing...

Pump Wisdom: Problem Solving for Operators and Specialists

April, 2011
An accessible guide to the main reasons pumps fail—and what can be done about it Workhorses in many different industries, including the oil industry, water industry, chemical industry, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry to name a few, pumps are a vital contributor to maintaining and...

Problem Solving for Process Operators and Specialists

April, 2011
This book provides methods to train process operators to solve challenging problems. The book is split into two parts. The first part consists of two parts; first developing a daily monitoring system and second providing a structured 5 step problem solving approach that combines cause and effect...

LNG Risk Based Safety: Modeling and Consequence Analysis

March, 2010
The expert, all-inclusive guide on LNG risk based safety. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is the condensed form of natural gas achieved by cryogenic chilling. This process reduces gas to a liquid 600 times smaller in volume than it is in its original state, making it suitable for economical global...
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