This paper examines the ramifications of consequence-based accidental release scenarios that have been historically required, describes the latest requirements imposed by FERC and explains how these came into existence. The changing requirements have ostensibly been driven toward better definition of release sources; however, FERC’s requirements have challenged the available and approved analytical tools. Also with this evolution, new types of scenarios coupled with new models have heavily influenced piping and equipment design, unit layout, unit siting, and mitigation strategies. This paper will discuss the evolution and the now dominant considerations for facility siting and unit design that drive the safety aspects of LNG facility permitting process from the industry’s perspective.
Specific examples of scenarios will be provided as well as their consequences in terms of the resulting ½-LFL vapor clouds as well as the distance to the 1 psi boundary for the corresponding vapor cloud explosions. This paper will also provide a summary of the effectiveness of mitigation techniques, including the use of vapor fences based on numerous case studies.
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