Process Safety

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Process Safety Boot Camp

Instructor-led (classroom) Course
CCPS
This intensive 4-day course is also offered periodically throughout the year to the broader chemical engineering public. Taught jointly by process...

Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)

CCPS was established in 1985 to focus on engineering and management practices that can prevent and mitigate catastrophic accidents involving release of hazardous materials. CCPS is supported by sponsors in the chemical and hydrocarbon process industries and active worldwide via conferences, books, databases, education, research, and more.

Guidelines for Preventing Human Error in Process Safety

August, 2004
Almost all the major accident investigations--Texas City, Piper Alpha, the Phillips 66 explosion, Feyzin, Mexico City--show human error as the principal cause, either in design, operations, maintenance, or the management of safety. This book provides practical advice that can substantially reduce...

Guidelines for Facility Siting and Layout

August, 2003
A resource for individuals responsible for siting decisions, this guidelines book covers siting and layout of process plants, including both new and expanding facilities. This book provides comprehensive guidelines in selecting a site, recognizing and assessing long-term risks, and the optimal lay...

Understanding Explosions

July, 2003
There are many different types of explosions, each with its own complex mechanism. Understanding explosions is important in preventing them. This reference provides valuable information on explosions for everyone involved in the operation, design, maintenance, and management of chemical processes,...

Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents, 2nd Edition

March, 2003
This book provides a valuable reference tool for technical and management personnel who lead or are a part of incident investigation teams. This second edition focuses on investigating process-related incidents with real or potential catastrophic consequences. It presents on-the-job information,...

Essential Practices for Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards

March, 2003
In its recent investigation of chemical reactivity accidents, the US Chemical Safety Board noted a gap in technical guidance and regulatory coverage. This volume closes the gap in technical guidance, helping small and large companies alike identify, address, and manage chemical reactivity hazards...

Deflagration and Detonation Flame Arresters

May, 2002
Designed for chemical engineers and other technical personnel involved in the design, operation, and maintenance of facilities and equipment where deflagration and detonation flame arresters (DDFAs) may be required, this book fosters effective application and operation of DDFAs through treatment of...

Wind Flow and Vapor Cloud Dispersion at Industrial and Urban Sites

April, 2002
A key component of risk reduction is reducing the potential consequences that could result from toxic or flammable releases. The science of vapor cloud dispersion has advanced significantly in recent years, but one of the long-standing challenges has been in accounting for dispersion around...

Layer of Protection Analysis: Simplified Process Risk Assessment

October, 2001
Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA...

Making EHS an Integral Part of Process Design

June, 2001
This book presents an approach—termed MERITT (Maximizing EHS Returns by Integrating Tools and Talents)—for enhancing process development through better integration of environmental, health, and safety evaluations. It draws upon critical components of inherent safety, pollution prevention, green...

Revalidating Process Hazard Analyses

February, 2001
The foundation of any successful process safety program is a current set of process hazard analyses (PHAs) for each of its processes. Revalidating PHAs to keep them up to date and applicable is a must. This book is derived from the experience of many companies in the chemical and hydrocarbon...

Guidelines for Process Safety in Outsourced Manufacturing Operations

September, 2000
In today’s competitive economy, companies often augment in-house production by outsourcing chemical reaction processes and distillation, drying, formulating, blending, and packaging operations. While most of these tolling, or contracted manufacturing services, proceed without incident, recent major...

Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems

September, 1999
Batch reaction systems pose unique challenges to process safety managers because they do not operate in a steady state. The sequence of processing steps, and frequent start-ups and shutdowns, increase the possibility of human errors and equipment failures. And, since batch plants are often designed...

Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations

September, 1999
Written by Laurence Britton, who has over 20 years' experience in the fields of static ignition and process fire and explosion hazards research, this resource addresses an area not extensively covered in process safety standards or literature: understanding and reducing potential hazards associated...

Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud

July, 1999
This CCPS Concept book shows designers and operators of chemical facilities how to realistically estimate the flammable mass in a cloud of accidentally released material that is capable of igniting. It provides information on industry experience with flammable vapor clouds, basic concepts of fires...

Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures

August, 1998
While there is no "perfect" solution or absolute zero risk, engineering design can significantly reduce risk potential in the CPI. In Guidelines for Design Solutions to Process Equipment Failures, industry experts offer their broad experience in identifying numerous solutions to the more common...

Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals

June, 1998
A comprehensive understanding of the potential dangers inherent in warehousing chemicals is the first step in managing the associated risks. Written by industry professionals for warehouse operators, designers, and all who are concerned with the safe warehousing of chemicals, this book offers a...

Guidelines for Pressure Relief and Effluent Handling Systems

March, 1998
Current industry, government and public emphasis on containment of hazardous materials makes it essential for each plant to reduce and control accidental releases to the atmosphere. Guidelines for Pressure Relief and Effluent Handling Systems meets the need for information on selecting and sizing...

Electrostatic Ignitions of Fires and Explosions

July, 1997
Tom Pratt, a long-time process safety practitioner and lecturer in electrostatic safety, wrote this book to educate industry in the basics of electrostatics. It offers a selected collection of information designed to give readers the tools they need to examine the hazard potential of common...

Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models, 2nd Edition

December, 1996
The second edition of this essential reference updates and combines two earlier titles to capture the many technological advances for predicting the "footprint" of a vapor cloud release. Cited by EPA in its 1996 document, "Off-Site Consequence Analysis Guidance," the aim of the book is to encourage...

Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety

December, 1996
Written and edited by engineering contractors and industry project/maintenance managers as an easy-to-use guide for other industry professionals, this book identifies important process safety issues in the contractor-client relationship,which are not addressed by other groups and publications...

Guidelines for Writing Effective Operating and Maintenance Procedures

May, 1996
The EPA investigation of a 1994 chemical plant tragedy concluded that "the explosion resulted from a lack of written safe operating procedures…" While good written procedures can't guarantee zero accidents, they can reduce the number of accidents caused by human error. This new book shows how to...

Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials

September, 1995
With new and growing interest in dealing with the hazards of reactive chemicals, this book offers guidelines that can significantly reduce the risk or mitigate the severity of accidents associated with storing and handling reactive materials. Necessary elements of a reliable system to prevent...

Guidelines for Technical Planning for On-Site Emergencies

June, 1995
Prevention, preparedness, response and recovery--the key components of emergency planning--form the major sections of this work. The book first describes PSM (Process Safety Management) as the key to prevention, then goes on to consider the main features of a preparedness program, including...

Guidelines for Chemical Reactivity Evaluation and Application to Process Design

April, 1995
Drawn from international sources, this book provides principles and strategies for the evaluation of chemical reactions, and for using this information in process design and management. A useful resource for engineers who design, start-up, operate, and manage chemical and petrochemical plants, the...

Guidelines for Process Safety Fundamentals in General Plant Operations

April, 1995
At last, a book that covers safety procedures and standards with information that is rarely available outside of proprietary materials. A comprehensive source for basic and essential operations and procedures in use in any facility, the book offers chemical operators and first line supervisors...

Guidelines for Process Safety Documentation

April, 1995
The process industry has developed integrated process safety management programs to reduce or eliminate incidents and major consequences, such as injury, loss of life, property damage, environmental harm, and business interruption. Good documentation practices are a crucial part of retaining past...

Guidelines for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance

March, 1995
First-line managers have to maintain the integrity of facilities, control manufacturing processes, and handle unusual or emergency situations, as well as respond to the pressures of production demand. On a daily basis, they are closest to the operating personnel who may be injured by a process...

Guidelines for Consequence Analysis of Chemical Releases

March, 1995
This Guidelines book provides technical information on how to conduct a consequence analysis to satisfy your company's needs and the EPA rules. It covers quantifying the size of a release, dispersion of vapor clouds to an endpoint concentration, outcomes for various types of explosions and fires,...

Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions with Chemical Process Safety Applications

August, 1994
The complexity of today's risk decisions is well known. Beyond cost and risk there are many other factors contributing to these decisions, including type of risk (such as human injury or fatality), the economic impact on the local community, profitability, availability of capital, alternatives for...

Guidelines for Implementing Process Safety Management Systems

April, 1994
The causes of catastrophic accidents in the process industries, now recognized as complex and interrelated, need to be matched by multi-faceted technical management systems. These principles apply to companies of any size and to a full range of industries beyond the chemical industry, such as pulp...

Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes

October, 1993
Increased automation reduces the potential for operator error, but introduces the possibility of new types of errors in design and maintenance. This book provides designers and operators of chemical process facilities with a general philosophy and approach to safe automation, including independent...

Guidelines for Vapor Release Mitigation

April, 1988
Guidelines for Vapor Release Mitigation is a survey of current industrial practice for controlling accidental releases of hazardous vapors and preventing their escape from the source area.

Minimize Electrostatic Hazards During Process Operations

June
2013
Safety
Vahid Ebadat
Understand the electrostatic hazards of your process so you can limit the accumulation of charge and prevent static discharge in flammable atmospheres. Select the appropriate combination of electrostatic mitigation measures to ensure safety from electrostatic ignition hazards.

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Why Can't I Open that Valve?

June
2013
Process Safety Beacon
In April 2004, an explosion and fire at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plant killed five people and severely injured three others. The explosion and fire destroyed most of the reactor building and an adjacent warehouse. Because smoke from the fire drifted...

Assess Hazards with Process Flow Failure Modes Analysis

March
2013
Safety
Rosalynn MacGregor
Process flow failure modes (PFFM) analysis is an intuitive, process-flow-directed way to identify potentially hazardous scenarios. Learn how to apply this technique to your process hazard reviews.

Improve Process Safety with Near-Miss Analysis

May
2013
On The Horizon
Ankur Pariyani, Masoud Soroush, Ulku Oktem, Warren Seider
Valuable information about unsafe conditions resides in the large alarm databases of distributed control systems and emergency shutdown systems. This overlooked and underutilized information can be analyzed to identify process near-misses and determine the probability of serious accidents.

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - What is Supporting Your Equipment?

February
2013
Process Safety Beacon
Pipes and equipment that are not properly supported will be subject to stress, vibration, or other problems, This can cause leaks, or even a complete collapse of piping or equipment. But, problems with inadequate support of piping and other...

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Mechanical Integrity of Tubing

May
2012
Process Safety Beacon
Proper installation, maintenance, and inspection of metal tubing is important in preventing fires and toxic material releases in process plants. Do not forget about tubing just because it is usually small. Even a small leak can cause a fire that can...

Product Digest - Safety Equipment

May
2012
Product Digest
Check out warning devices for hazardous areas and high-visibility work vests that reduce static electricity.

Beware of the Dangers of Cold Traps

February
2013
Safety
James R. Risko
Cold traps — steam traps that no longer drain condensate — are often ignored in lieu of less-critical leaking traps, until a catastrophic event, such as a plant shutdown or personal injury, occurs. Use historical data to accurately estimate the annual cost of these cold traps to justify their swift repair.

Improve Safety by Improving Human Performance

August
2006
Safety
Donald K. Lorenzo
Follow these guidelines to identify situations in which human errors are likely to occur and to correct potential problems early enough to avoid adverse consequences.

Streamline Your Process Hazard Analysis

January
2013
Safety
Judy Perry, Molly Myers
A little creativity during preparation — developing checklists, grouping similar processes, pre-populating worksheets, and considering possible deviations and safeguards before meeting face to face — goes a long way toward improving the efficiency and effectiveness of your PHA efforts.

Recognizing Catastrophic Incident Warning Signs in the Process Industries

November, 2011
This book provides guidance on characterizing, recognizing, and responding to warning signs to help avoid process incidents and injuries before they occur. The guidance can be used by both process safety management (PSM) professionals in evaluating their processes and PSM systems as well as for...

Practical Compliance with the EPA Risk Management Program: A CCPS Concept Book

July, 2009
At last, smaller chemical processing operations have truly easy access to process safety and risk management programs tailored to meet their needs. Written as a "how to" book with checklists, it offers sufficient information for managers of facilities with small chemical operations to implement a...

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Good Housekeeping for Safety

December
2012
Process Safety Beacon
A fire started in a fiber trash drum in a process building. The drum contained solder flux and paste, welding debris, general trash, and oil-soaked rags. It had not been emptied for a long time. The ignition source may have been hot welding debris...

OSHA's New Chemical NEP: How to Make the Grade and Earn Extra Credit

October
2012
Safety
Heather Forgione, Henry Ozog
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration evaluates chemical facilities’ process safety management systems through a new national emphasis program. Follow these tips to reduce your risk of receiving citations, streamline the inspection process, and pave the way for future excellence.

Before OSHA Comes Knocking ...

March
2009
Safety
Daniel Steinway
The OSHA Process Safety Management National Emphasis Program will soon apply to the chemical industry, targeting compliance with safety standards associated with chemical hazards.

Reshaping Process Safety Regulations

March
2002
Safety
Walter L. Frank
Changes to OSHA's PSM rule and EPA's RMP programs are underway, due to pressures from various groups and the need for greater security.

Developing Safety Standard for Pilot Plants

October
2006
Safety
Richard P. Palluzi
Safety standards can significantly improve pilot plant safety and increase efficiency. This article addresses many of the issues involved in developing, deploying and using such standards.

Six Steps to Effectively Update and Revalidate PHAs

January
2001
Safety
David K. Whittle, Kevin  Smith
Process hazard analyses must be revamped — or redone from scratch — every five years by law. Following the guidance given here will facilitate this effort.

CEP: Spotlight on Safety - LOPA — A Valuable Risk-Reduction Tool

November
2012
Spotlight on Safety
John F. Murphy, P.E.
Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a simplified process risk-assessment technique that uses order-of-magnitude estimates for initiating events, consequence severity, and likelihood of failure of independent protection layers (IPLs) to approximate the risk of a scenario. It is generally used after a process hazard analysis (PHA) team has identified a hazard scenario that requires further analysis to ensure the adequacy of the safeguards that exist or are being proposed.

CEP: Commentary - Working Together to Put CFATS Back on Track

November
2012
Commentary
Bill Allmond
More than five years ago, Congress enacted the most robust and comprehensive chemical security regulatory program to date. The regulation — the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) — protects facilities against attack without impairing...

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Double Block and Bleed

March
2012
Process Safety Beacon
The December 2011 Beacon described an incident where a missing plug on a vent line resulted in a flammable material leak that caught fire, causing a fatality. That incident reminded us of the importance of caps and plugs on process vent lines and...

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Manage Temporary Changes

October
2012
Process Safety Beacon
A filter on the suction of a pump frequently plugged. Because of this, the pressure needed to be monitored, both in the field and at the control panel. To minimize installation time for a pressure transmitter, it was decided to install a tap on the...
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