Process Safety

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Process Safety Boot Camp

Instructor-led (classroom) Course
CCPS
This intensive 4-day course is also offered periodically throughout the year to the broader chemical engineering public. Taught jointly by process...

Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)

CCPS was established in 1985 to focus on engineering and management practices that can prevent and mitigate catastrophic accidents involving release of hazardous materials. CCPS is supported by sponsors in the chemical and hydrocarbon process industries and active worldwide via conferences, books, databases, education, research, and more.

(Chinese) Guidelines for the Management of Change for Process Safety

January, 2013
《工艺安全管理:变更管理导则》的主要意图就是向读者讲述清楚变更管理系统的基本内容。变更管理系统帮助确保对装置的设计、操作、维护和机构变更等不会对雇员、公众或者环境造成不利影响。

(Chinese) Layer of Protection Analysis: Simplified Process Risk Assessment

May, 2010
保护层分析:简化的过程风险评估》系统介绍了保护层分析(LOPA)的基本原理及其发展历史,详细描述了LOPA分析的相关概念和分析过程,如场景开发、初始事件及频率、独立保护层的识别等,并使用贯穿全书的两个案例对LOPA分析的过程及要点进行了展示,有利于读者理解掌握LOPA分析的方法和要点。

CEP: Spotlight on Safety - Normalization of Deviation — Identify It, Correct It, Prevent It

May
2014
Spotlight on Safety
Louisa Nara
Whether we are talking about occupational safety or process safety, normalizing a deviation can result in unsafe practices, conditions, and operations. Getting comfortable with and accepting these deviations can cause a shift in our perception of what is safe. Why does this matter? Moving the target for safe operating limits and tolerating the higher risk s associated with doing so can ultimately lead to a catastrophic incident.

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Major Spills and Environmental Incidents

May
2014
Process Safety Beacon
We may think of process safety incidents as fires, explosions, and immediate injuries from exposure to toxic, corrosive, or otherwise hazardous materials. However, major spills of hazardous materials, especially into rivers or other bodies of water, are also process safety incidents. They have the potential to impact large numbers of people, including people far away from your plant.

Maintain Accurate Process Safety Information

April
2014
Back To Basics
Sandipan Laskar
Accurate process safety information is the cornerstone of effective process safety management. Follow this three-phase approach to create and maintain an effective PSI program.

Has PSI Become a Data Management Nightmare?

Sponsored Webinar
Mar 26, 2014
This webinar addresses the importance of Process Safety Information (PSI) and PSI management, the potential limitations associated with PSI...

Inherently Safer Chemical Processes: A Life Cycle Approach, 2nd Edition

December, 2008
Inherently Safer Chemical Processes presents a holistic approach to making the development, manufacture, and use of chemicals safer. It discusses strategies for substituting more benign chemicals at the development stage, minimizing risk in the transportation of chemicals, using safer processing...

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Are We Reliving Past Incidents?

February
2014
Process Safety Beacon
The short answer to this questions is YES. In 1993, Trevor Kletz, who passed away on Oct. 31, 2013, at the age of 91, wrote a book titled Lessons from Disaster: How Organizations Have No Memory and Accidents Recur. Twenty years later, we still fail to learn from accidents, and we repeat them.

CEP: Spotlight on Safety - Discover Your Personal Process Safety Culture

February
2014
Spotlight on Safety
John Herber
Culture can be defined as a collective group of shared beliefs and values that shape how we act. We think of culture as it relates to the actions and reactions of a group, company, or society. However, it can also characterize an individual — what influences how you make day-to-day decisions or handle various situations. Personal process safety culture can be assessed by observing someone’s (yours or another person’s) response to situations involving a safety violation.

Take the FUN Out of Process Safety

February
2014
Safety
Peter Lodal
Process safety can be approached in many different ways. This article provides an unconventional way of looking at process safety that ties together wide-ranging ideas from seemingly disparate fields.

Advances in Layer of Protection Analysis

AIChE Webinar
Jan 29, 2014
Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) has become possibly the most commonly used quantitative risk methodology in the chemical industry. This webinar...

Protect Your Process with the Proper Flame Arresters

December
2013
Safety
Michael Davies, Thomas Heidermann
A flame arrester may be installed to keep an external flame out of a tank or vessel or to ensure that a flame burning within a pipeline does not propagate to other equipment. Use the information presented here to determine what type of device is appropriate for your application.

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Hazards of Strong Oxidizers

December
2013
Process Safety Beacon
A worker was asked to move two open-top 5-gal pails containing aqueous sodium permanganate solution from one location to another. When he picked up the pails, the contents of one of them erupted, spraying him with the solution. Sodium permanganate is a strong oxidizer, and the splashed material set the worker’s clothing on fire. His injuries required hospital treatment.

Process Safety for Process Engineers

Virtual Local Section Webinar
Jan 26, 2012
Process safety is the most important facet of our jobs as process engineers. Learn how CCPS can support process engineers in their quest to make...

Sizing Pressure-Relief Devices

October
2013
Back To Basics
Daniel Crowl, Scott A. Tipler
Although relief devices may never be activated, they must be designed and sized to function correctly every time they are necessary. This article provides an introduction to sizing pressure-relief devices for liquid and vapor service.

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Holiday Operations

November
2013
Process Safety Beacon
Many plants shut down or reduce operations during a holiday period. Equipment may be in a non-standard condition while processes are on hold or shut down. Even though the plant is shut down, it is likely that hazardous materials are still present in storage tanks and process vessels. Equipment that is shut down may be opened for inspection or maintenance. Some plants continue to operate during a holiday but with reduced staff, delaying less-critical activities.

Combustible Dust Hazards: Dust Explosions

Instructor-led (classroom) Course
AIChE
This course covers the knowledge and tools necessary to examine your workplace for the hazards, assess protection needs, and to respond efficiently...

A Root-Cause Approach to PSM Audits

October
2013
Safety
David Heller, David Kahn
Tracing audit findings back to the management system that allowed the failure to occur is an effective way to uncover deficiencies in an organization’s process safety management system. Follow the guidance provided in this article to apply root-cause-based auditing to your facility.

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas

October
2013
Process Safety Beacon
One hundred years ago, on Oct. 14, 1913, the Senghenydd Colliery in Glamorgan, South Wales, exploded, resulting in 439 fatalities. This was the worst coal mine disaster in the history of the U.K. The incident is believed to have been started by...

SAChE Certificate Program

eLearning (online) Course
CCPS
The SAChE Certificate Program offers working engineers an easy way to access a selection of knowledge about chemical process safety. Originally...

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Air Power

September
2013
Process Safety Beacon
Air is always all around us, and the oxygen it contains is necessary for life. But, compressed air (or any other compressed gas) contains a lot of energy and can cause major damage if a vessel or pipe fails.

Preventing Process Safety Problems of Tomorrow, Today!

AIChE Spring Meeting and Global Congress on Process Safety
May 1, 2013
The most cost effective time for implementing process safety design elements is during the planning stages of the project management process. Gap:...

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Can a Water Pump Explode?

August
2013
Process Safety Beacon
The answer must be yes, or we would not have a Beacon on this subject. The centrifugal pumps in the pictures are all water pumps that exploded. The explosions did not occur because of any contamination or chemical reaction with something that was...

Characterize Reactive Chemicals with Calorimetry

July
2013
Safety
Daniel Crowl, Jason Keith
In designing and operating chemical manufacturing processes, the reactivity of chemicals must be identified to avoid hazards. Calorimetry experiments combined with analytical methods provide a straightforward technique to identify these reactions...

CEP: Process Safety Beacon - Remembering Piper Alpha

July
2013
Process Safety Beacon
This month marks the 25th anniversary of the Piper Alpha offshore oil platform disaster in the North Sea approximately 110 miles (180 km) from Aberdeen, Scotland. On July 6, 1988, a series of catastrophic explosions and fires destroyed the platform...

Use Hydrogen Safely

July
2013
Safety
David Farese, Svetlana Ivanova
Understand the potential dangers associated with handling and storing hydrogen, and take the appropriate precautions to mitigate the risks.

Tutorial on Combustible Dust

Global Congress on Process Safety
Apr 3, 2012
Recent catastrophic dust explosions, the combustible dust National Emphasis Program (NEP), and OSHA proposed rulemaking, have increased awareness of...

Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety, 2nd Edition

April, 2012
The book focuses on process safety issues in the design of chemical, petrochemical, and hydrocarbon processing facilities. It discusses how to select designs that can prevent or mitigate the release of flammable or toxic materials, which could lead to a fire, explosion, or environmental damage.

Guidelines for Process Safety in Bioprocess Manufacturing Facilities

November, 2010
This book helps advance process safety in a key area of interest. Currently, no literature exists which is solely dedicated to process safety for the bioprocessing industry. There are texts, guidelines, and standards on biosafety at the laboratory level and for industrial hygiene, but no guidelines...

Guidelines for Acquisition Evaluation and Post Merger Integration

June, 2010
It is crucial for process safety professionals to be aware of best practices for post merger integration at any level. A compilation of industry best practices from both technical and financial perspectives, this book provides a single reference that addresses acquisitions and merger integration...

Guidelines for Developing Quantitative Safety Risk Criteria

August, 2009
Written by a committee of safety professionals, this book creates a foundation document for the development and application of risk tolerance criteria. Helps safety managers evaluate the frequency, severity and consequence of human injury Includes examples of risk tolerance criteria used by NASA,...

Continuous Monitoring for Hazardous Material Releases

March, 2009
Whether occurring accidentally or through acts of terrorism, catastrophic chemical releases must be identified early in order to mitigate their consequences. Continuous sensor monitoring can detect catastrophic chemical releases early enough to curb extreme amounts of damage. In several notable...

Incidents That Define Process Safety

March, 2008
Incidents That Define Process Safety describes approximately fifty incidents that have had a significant impact on the chemical and refining industries' approaches to modern process safety. Events are described in detail so readers get a fundamental understanding of the root causes, the...

Guidelines for Safe and Reliable Instrumented Protective Systems

April, 2007
This book explains the decision-making processes for the management of instrumented protective systems (IPS) throughout a project's life cycle. It uses the new IEC 61511 standard as a basis for the work processes used to achieve safe and reliable process operation. By walking the reader through a...

Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries

December, 2006
Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries provides guidance for managers and plant engineering staff on specific, practical techniques and tools for addressing forty different human factors issues impacting process safety. Human factors incidents can result in injury...

Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity Systems

July, 2006
In recent years, process safety management system compliance audits have revealed that organizations often have significant opportunities for improving their Mechanical Integrity programs. As part of the Center for Chemical Process Safety's Guidelines series, Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity...

Chemical Reactivity Hazard Training CD-ROM

May, 2006
The Chemical Reactivity Hazards CD is a self-paced teaching tool intended to teach people how to recognize and manage reactive chemical hazards. It provides an introduction to the topic and many online links to additional resources. The CD has three main objectives: Introduce reactive chemical...

Guidelines for Safe Handling of Powders and Bulk Solids

November, 2004
Powders and bulk solids, handled widely in the chemical, pharmaceutical, agriculture, smelting, and other industries present unique fire, explosion, and toxicity hazards. Indeed, substances which are practically inert in consolidated form may become quite hazardous when converted to powders and...

Guidelines for Preventing Human Error in Process Safety

August, 2004
Almost all the major accident investigations--Texas City, Piper Alpha, the Phillips 66 explosion, Feyzin, Mexico City--show human error as the principal cause, either in design, operations, maintenance, or the management of safety. This book provides practical advice that can substantially reduce...

Guidelines for Facility Siting and Layout

August, 2003
A resource for individuals responsible for siting decisions, this guidelines book covers siting and layout of process plants, including both new and expanding facilities. This book provides comprehensive guidelines in selecting a site, recognizing and assessing long-term risks, and the optimal lay...

Understanding Explosions

July, 2003
There are many different types of explosions, each with its own complex mechanism. Understanding explosions is important in preventing them. This reference provides valuable information on explosions for everyone involved in the operation, design, maintenance, and management of chemical processes,...

Essential Practices for Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards

March, 2003
In its recent investigation of chemical reactivity accidents, the US Chemical Safety Board noted a gap in technical guidance and regulatory coverage. This volume closes the gap in technical guidance, helping small and large companies alike identify, address, and manage chemical reactivity hazards...

Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents, 2nd Edition

March, 2003
This book provides a valuable reference tool for technical and management personnel who lead or are a part of incident investigation teams. This second edition focuses on investigating process-related incidents with real or potential catastrophic consequences. It presents on-the-job information,...

Deflagration and Detonation Flame Arresters

May, 2002
Designed for chemical engineers and other technical personnel involved in the design, operation, and maintenance of facilities and equipment where deflagration and detonation flame arresters (DDFAs) may be required, this book fosters effective application and operation of DDFAs through treatment of...

Wind Flow and Vapor Cloud Dispersion at Industrial and Urban Sites

April, 2002
A key component of risk reduction is reducing the potential consequences that could result from toxic or flammable releases. The science of vapor cloud dispersion has advanced significantly in recent years, but one of the long-standing challenges has been in accounting for dispersion around...

Layer of Protection Analysis: Simplified Process Risk Assessment

October, 2001
Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA...

Making EHS an Integral Part of Process Design

June, 2001
This book presents an approach—termed MERITT (Maximizing EHS Returns by Integrating Tools and Talents)—for enhancing process development through better integration of environmental, health, and safety evaluations. It draws upon critical components of inherent safety, pollution prevention, green...

Revalidating Process Hazard Analyses

February, 2001
The foundation of any successful process safety program is a current set of process hazard analyses (PHAs) for each of its processes. Revalidating PHAs to keep them up to date and applicable is a must. This book is derived from the experience of many companies in the chemical and hydrocarbon...

Guidelines for Process Safety in Outsourced Manufacturing Operations

September, 2000
In today’s competitive economy, companies often augment in-house production by outsourcing chemical reaction processes and distillation, drying, formulating, blending, and packaging operations. While most of these tolling, or contracted manufacturing services, proceed without incident, recent major...

Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems

September, 1999
Batch reaction systems pose unique challenges to process safety managers because they do not operate in a steady state. The sequence of processing steps, and frequent start-ups and shutdowns, increase the possibility of human errors and equipment failures. And, since batch plants are often designed...

Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations

September, 1999
Written by Laurence Britton, who has over 20 years' experience in the fields of static ignition and process fire and explosion hazards research, this resource addresses an area not extensively covered in process safety standards or literature: understanding and reducing potential hazards associated...

Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud

July, 1999
This CCPS Concept book shows designers and operators of chemical facilities how to realistically estimate the flammable mass in a cloud of accidentally released material that is capable of igniting. It provides information on industry experience with flammable vapor clouds, basic concepts of fires...

Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures

August, 1998
While there is no "perfect" solution or absolute zero risk, engineering design can significantly reduce risk potential in the CPI. In Guidelines for Design Solutions to Process Equipment Failures, industry experts offer their broad experience in identifying numerous solutions to the more common...

Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals

June, 1998
A comprehensive understanding of the potential dangers inherent in warehousing chemicals is the first step in managing the associated risks. Written by industry professionals for warehouse operators, designers, and all who are concerned with the safe warehousing of chemicals, this book offers a...

Guidelines for Pressure Relief and Effluent Handling Systems

March, 1998
Current industry, government and public emphasis on containment of hazardous materials makes it essential for each plant to reduce and control accidental releases to the atmosphere. Guidelines for Pressure Relief and Effluent Handling Systems meets the need for information on selecting and sizing...
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